Ioudaioi was the name given to the people of Judah after Alexander the Great conquered Judah in 333 BCE. Judah was originally one of the twelve tribes of Israel, and was the name for the southern kingdom after Israel split in 922 BCE after the death of King Solomon. The term Ioudaioi is often mistranslated from Greek as Jews. In contrast, it should be properly translated as Judeans. The Ioudaioi came from or lived in the land of Judea (Ioudaia). Paul never claimed to be Judean (or an Ioudaios in Greek), but rather identified himself as an Israelite from the tribe of Benjamin and as a former Pharisee (Philippians 3:5).
The Pharisees were one of the four major political parties that came into to being after the Hasmoneans claimed the position of High Priest, around 150 BCE. They were the largest party and had great influence over the Ioudaioi on issues of religion; they accepted the Tanakh and oral Torah as necessities to be followed (H 301). In addition to being a Pharisee...
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...rdance with the scriptures, and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures”.
On the road to Damascus, Paul received a calling to become “an instrument whom [YHWH] chose to bring my name before Gentiles [ethne or “nations”] and kings and before the people of Israel” (Acts 9:15). The Ioudaioi or Judeans would be considered as part of the people of Israel. Therefore, Paul had the responsibility to persuade the Ioudaioi that justice and salvation come about through Jesus Christ alone (Romans 5:12-21). A lot of the Ioudaioi believed that justice is obtained through following nomos or “law or custom”. Paul debated with the Ioudaioi in order to successfully persuade them to believe his viewpoint. This was done by means of his three missionary trips (H G-33) and by him writing letters to the ekklesia in various cities.
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