The Adult Spinal Column

The Adult Spinal Column

Length: 747 words (2.1 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
Abstract—Understanding the relationship between repetitive lifting and the breakdown of disc tissue over several years of exposure is difficult to study in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this investigation was to develop an asymmetric Porovisco elastic finite element model of a lumbar motion segment that reflects the biological properties and behaviors of in vivo disc Finite element predictions were compared to in vivo measurements published by Tyrrell et al. (1985) of percent change in total stature for two loading protocols, short-term creep loading and standing recovery and short-term cyclic loading with standing recovery. Future models will treat the tissues as poor-assume elastic and 3D in order to be more accurate and the relationship between repetitive lifting and disc degeneration
he adult spinal column is made up of 26 bones, called vertebrae: 7 cervical in the neck, 12 thoracic in the rib area, 5 lumbar in the lower back, a sacrum and a coccyx. Located between adjacent vertebrae are intervertebral discs. The human intervertebral disc acts as the body’s shock absorber to properly diffuse the stresses that the spine encounters. It is made up of the inner, gel-like nucleus pulposus and the outer annulus fibrosus. Fluid flows through the disc in a diurnal cycle At the beginning of each day, the disc is fully hydrated, but as the day progresses, fluid is forced to flow out of the disc; this flow helps to carry nutrients into and waste out of the disc [1].
The exploration of biomechanical properties of living tissues is fundamental to the analysis of structural behaviour of the musculoskeletal system. It is known that mechanical properties of living tissues are time dependent. Creep, relaxation, constant strain rate loading, and cyclic loading represent the various physiological loading conditions that the human body confronts. For example, higher strain rates of loading can be used for simulating vehicular accidents or trauma, medium strain rates of loading for daily activity, creep for the prolonged static posture, and cyclic loading for work in vibrating environments, i.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"The Adult Spinal Column." 17 Dec 2018

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Informative Speech: Spinal Cord Injuries

- PURPOSE: To inform my audience about people in the United States living with spinal cord injuries There are about a quarter of a million people in the United States living with spinal cord injuries. In addition, between 7,600 and 10,000 new injuries occur each year. Nearly half of these new injuries will occur in young people between the ages of 16 and 30....   [tags: Informative Speech]

Research Papers
980 words (2.8 pages)

Essay about Sacred Rage in The Fifth Column

- Sacred Rage in The Fifth Column In The Fifth Column, the hero, who has become finally indistinguishable from the false or publicity Hemingway, has here dosed himself with whiskey; a seductive and desirous woman, for whom he has the most admirable reasons for not taking any responsibility; sacred rage; the excitement of bombardment; and indulgence in that headiest of sports, for which he has now the same excellent reasons -- the bagging of human beings. You may be afraid, after reading The Fifth Column, that Hemingway will never sober up; but as you go on in the new volume in which it appears, which includes also his most recent short stories, you find that your apprehensions were unfoun...   [tags: The Fifth Column Essays]

Research Papers
1599 words (4.6 pages)

Essay on The Spinal Cord and Spinal Cord Injury

- INTRODUCTION The spinal cord is a major channel in the body where motor and sensory information travels from the brain to the body. It has white matter that surrounds a central gray matter. The gray matter is where most of the neuronal cells are located. Injury to the spinal cord will affect the conduction of information across any part of the spinal cord where the damage is located (Maynard et al., 1997). This will often result in permanent disability of a certain muscle or region of the body (Meletis et al., 2008) and a loss of tissue where the damage is located (Peng et al., 2009)....   [tags: Medical Research ]

Research Papers
1145 words (3.3 pages)

Essay on Adult Education and Adult Learning Analysis

- It is my conviction that the noble profession of instructing teachers is the greatest, most powerful contributor to nation building. Teachers, within the school system, have the responsibility of imparting knowledge, acting as agents of socialization, creating responsible, productive members of society and guiding students towards the achievement of their goals. It is, therefore, important that great emphasis be placed on training teachers, since in education teachers are viewed as significant contributors to the quality of students produced....   [tags: Andragogy, adult instructor, school system]

Research Papers
1170 words (3.3 pages)

The Ionic Column Essay

- The Ionic Column Throughout history, art has become the main source for entertainment, enlightenment, and acknowledgement. It entertains those who are bored in the everyday life. It enlightens those who seek another world and those who seek beauty with wild imaginations. It acknowleges those who seek development in nature and their own world. From the cave drawings of Paleolithic art in Lascaux , to the Ancient Egyptian pyramids, and to the classical Greek sculptures, art is a never ending cycle of productions and reproductions passed on from one generation to the next, and from one culture to the next....   [tags: Art Columns Architecture History Essays]

Free Essays
1988 words (5.7 pages)

Foundations of Adult Education Essay

- AEIT 101: Foundations of Adult Education In order to build any solid structure, a good foundation is required. According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, a foundation is “an underlying base or support, especially the whole substructure of a building, a body or ground upon which something is built” ( Foundations must be durable to support the structure that is built above. For this reason, the Foundations of Adult Education course delves into various philosophical approaches to adult education and learning....   [tags: Adult Education]

Research Papers
1754 words (5 pages)

The Greek Column Essay

- The Greek Column A French champagne cognac with a Centaur trademark, called Remy Martin, is featured in several magazine advertisements resting on a column in various positions. The one being analyzed in this article shows the bottle of Remy Martin and a pair of glasses placed on top of a column so tall that it reaches above the clouds. It invites the viewer: "Want to come up for a drink sometime?" At the bottom right corner, the Centaur logo is repeated, along with a short description of its origin and a complimentary video offer....   [tags: Architecture Architectural Essays History]

Free Essays
1596 words (4.6 pages)

Spinal Stenosis Essays

- The spine is made up of bones known as the vertebrae which are each separated by discs that serve to reduce the impact that movement may have on the spinal column thus acting as a movable support structure. The spine is made up of seven vertebrae in the neck known as the cervical spine, twelve vertebrae in the mid-back known as the thoracic spine and 5 vertebrae in the low back known as the lumbar spine. There is a hollow space that runs down the middle of each vertebra that contains the spinal cord known as the spinal canal....   [tags: Disease/Disorders]

Research Papers
1151 words (3.3 pages)

Spinal Stenosis Essay

- Spinal Stenosis Abstract Spinal Stenosis is a term commonly used to describe a narrowing of the spinal canal. This problem is much more common in people over the age of 60. However, it can occur in younger people who have abnormally small spine canals as a type of birth defect. The problem usually causes back pain and leg pain that comes and goes with activities such as walking. The purpose of this information is to help you understand: the anatomy of the spine related to spinal stenosis the signs and symptoms of lumbar spinal stenosis, how the condition is diagnosed, and the treatments available for the condition....   [tags: Health Medical ]

Free Essays
1642 words (4.7 pages)

Adult Illiteracy Essay

- "Learning to read is like learning to drive a car. You take lessons and learn the mechanics and the rules of the road. After a few weeks you have learned how to drive, how to stop, how to shift gears, how to park, and how to signal. You have also learned to stop at a red light and understand road signs. When you are ready, you take a road test, and if you pass, you can drive. Phonics-first works the same way. The child learns the mechanics of reading, and when he's through, he can read. Look and say works differently....   [tags: Adult Illiteracy Essays]

Free Essays
6740 words (19.3 pages)

e. Truck driving. The hydrated soft tissues present time dependent properties that have been modelled by the biophysics and triphasic theories [2].
Fluid-saturated porous solids, e.g., polymer foams, metal foams, sponges or biological tissues, consist of a porous solid skeleton matrix filled with a pore-fluid. Based on the Theory of Porous Media (TPM), these types of materials could be described by biphasic models. The Theory of Porous Media is a macroscopic theory of immiscible and superimposed continua with internal interactions defined by the classical theory of mixtures combined with the concept of volume fractions. Thus, the properties of the constituents are averaged over a representative volume element occupied by the whole mixture. Therefore, in the resulting homogenized or smeared model, material points of each constituent exist at each geometric point. The volume fractions are introduced as scalar structural variables that describe the local composition of the mixture [3]. The reader who was interested in a broad review of the fundamentals of this theory was referred to the work of Bowen [4, 5], de Boer and Ehlers [6], or Ehlers [7–9]. In the framework of the TPM approach, the material behaviour of the porous solid skeleton ranges from elastic [10, 11], viscoelastic [12], Elasto-plastic [13,14] to Elasto-viscoplastic [15].
The present article proceeds from two basic assumptions, namely material incompressibility of both constituents (skeleton material and pore-fluid) and geometrically linear solid deformations, where the effective skeleton stress is determined by a linear viscoelasticity law based on a generalized rheological spring-dashpot model. Fluid viscosity is taken into account by the drag force, where the permeability is deformation dependent, governed by the actual porosity of the solid skeleton. Moreover, thermal effects as well as mass exchanges between the two constituents are excluded. The arising pure mechanical, linear viscoelastic two-phase model was capable of describing the material response of hydrated soft tissues under mechanical loading, where the biphasic formulation promotes the understanding of the material behaviour within.
To give an example, the behaviour of intervertebraldisc and articular cartilage as a biphasic material consisting of an organic solid matrix (collagen and proteoglycans) and an interstitial fluid (water and electrolytes) is described. In this context, the assumption of material incompressibility is valid under physiological levels of pressure .Like many other biological tissues, intervertebraldisc exhibits a significant viscoelastic behavior because of the flow-dependent fluid–solid interaction and the flow-independent viscoelastic skeleton properties .Therefore the objective of this thesis research is to develop poroviscoelastic, finite deformation, dynamic finite element model[3].

Return to