The 19th Century was a time of scientific advancement and discovery. When this century began, the Western World was right in the middle of the Industrial Revolution, and there were many advancements being made along with new countries joining in the industrialization. Along with that, figures such as Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer, and Thomas Malthus emerged in the 19th Century, bringing with them new ideas that would change the world. The 19th Century was also a time of imperialization, primarily in Africa. The industrialization in the West, along with the ideas of Darwin, Spencer, and Malthus, no doubt led to the reemergence of imperialism.
When Europe began to industrialize, it brought about a lot of change within the different nations. People began to leave their rural homes, where they worked on farms, for more urban areas, where they could work in factories. However, this massive urbanization in Europe caused a lot of problems for the people. When people left the rural communities for the cities, the cities were not prepared. This led to there not being enough food or space for all of the people living there. This phenomenon is best known now as the Malthusian Trap, as Thomas Malthus explained this situation in a hypothetical sense in Chapter 2 of his book titled An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798). According to Malthus, population increases in a geometric ratio, meaning that it will double, then quadruple, and so on. Food production, however, increases in a more arithmetic or linear fashion. Because of this, the population grows at a much faster rate than food production, which leads to food shortages and famine. Along with the food shortages, there was also a shortage of space. The cities to wh...
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...he late 18th and 19th Centuries had a great effect on the world, and ultimately led to the reemergence of Western imperialization. Industrialization led to urbanization, which in turn led to food shortages and growing tensions and eventually rebellion. Those rebellions are what unified Germany into one country, a country that would quickly become an industrial leader and a world power. With all of the power that industrialization provided the Western World, they had both the means and reason to imperialize. Darwin’s natural selection led to Spencer’s Social Darwinism, which led to the Western World believing that it was superior to less civilized societies. They had the responsibility to bring civilization out into the world, and imperialization was the way to go about it. Without these advancements, the world would be a very different place today.
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