Testing New Medications Essay

Testing New Medications Essay

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The final part of maintaining patient autonomy is assuring their safety. The AZT, Nuremberg, and Tuskegee Trials gave way to reform in the methodology of medical trials. In the late 80’s the drug zidovudine (AZT), a drug to reduce the vertical transmission of HIV, was in the trial phases of its life. This trial gained much recognition and eventually became one of the major trials to change how medical trials were carried out (Bhutta, 115). The Nuremberg Trials took place during World War II, where Dr. Karl Brandt led multiple doctors to experiment on otherwise healthy subjects (Farrell, 141). Theses experiments included submerging people in freezing water for three hours, injecting malaria into subjects, and shooting individuals with poisoned bullets. The Tuskegee Trials were conducted from the 30’s to the 70’s in the US the researchers in this trial were studying the course of untreated syphilis on 399 rural black men in Alabama (McGregor, 442). The biggest mistake made was that the doctors did not tell the 399 men that they had syphilis, only that they had “bad blood”. These dishonest doctors also did not treat the men they also made sure that no one else treated them, and lastly they went so far as to avoid these men to enlist in the military during World War II. These three trials are considered the model for how not to conduct research trials using human participants. In response to these disastrous trials there have been multiple codes established to prevent those terrible trials from being repeated. These codes include: Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, WHO-CIOMS Guidelines, Domestic Regulations of Human Experimentation, Food and Drug Administration, and Departmen...


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... Journal Of Health Care Law & Policy, 9(1), 136-161.

Hyder, A., & Dawson, L. (2005). Defining Standard of Care in the Developing World: The Intersection of International Research Ethics and Health Systems Analysis. Developing World Bioethics, 5(2), 142-152.

McGregor, J. (2006). Does the Use of Human Subjects in Research in Developing Nations Violate Their Human Rights? If So, Are Reparations an Appropriate Response?. Journal Of Social Philosophy, 37(3), 441-463. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9833.2006.00347.x

Munson, R. (2012). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in bioethics. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Perrey, C., Wassenaar, D., Gilchrist, S., & Ivanoff, B. (2009). Ethical Issues In Medical Research In The Developing World: A Report On A Meeting Organised By Fondation Mérieux. Developing World Bioethics, 9(2), 88-96. Doi:10.1111/J.1471-8847.2008.00229.X

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