Testing is not only to measure learning goals but it also conveys what it is important to learn. Researchers realized this by comparing higher level students to lower level students. The higher level students understood the deeper concepts. Largely, assessments are not only to be systematic, researchers think it’s important that students refer to prior knowledge or infer the answers. It is important that conceptually rich problems are not only addressed through assessment it must also be a part of the instructional process. Assignments and assessments must both challenge the students understand of conceptually rich ideas as well as scientific reasoning while maintaining consistency with both. Research shows that teaching this way promotes the retention of real learning goals and improves learning overall. There are contemporary theories of learning that say how knowledge is organized in the mind and how participati...
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...arned in a variety
of contexts .” Luckily, “the physics education research community is well aware of the importance of explicit representations of learning goals as well as the role of the formative assessment process, especially feedback and self-assessment, in promoting or deterring students’ engagement and willingness to take responsibility for their own learning.”  So we have them to thank for assessment reforms in context rich activities that prompt student’s conceptual understanding. The moment testing became more about grades and less about learning was when they became ineffective in proving how much one has learned. Through this article it’s clear that these issues are prominent and are not unnoticed. There are research communities who are trying to reform assessments so that they are testing and hopefully learning can get back to what is important.
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