Test anxiety can be studied as both trait and state construct. State test anxiety refers to emotional distress in specific academic setting. Common situational factors include lower self-conﬁdence for the speciﬁc test or an awareness of being not adequately prepared for the exam (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1992; Zohar, 1998). The trait test anxiety presents relatively stable individual differences in frequency and intensity of emotional response in test setting (Spielberger, 1972). Trait level of test anxiety is usually assessed by questionnaires. There are several questionnaires and scales of test anxiety upon which factor str...
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