Test anxiety has been defined as “the set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral reactions that accompany concern over possible negative consequences contingent upon performance in a test or evaluative situation” (Zeidner, 1998, p. 25-26). Overwhelming worrisome thoughts is often referred to as the hallmark symptom of test anxiety. Individuals are typically consumed with negative thoughts of potential failure in regards to testing situations. Wine’s (1971) “cognitive- attention” model attributes these negative cognitions responsible for less than optimal performance on tests because the individual is preoccupied with off-task information rather than being able to focus their attention on recalling relevant test material. (CITE) Test-anxiety also causes physiological changes to occur as a result of added stress in evaluative settings. The body responds to test stressors in a state of panic which causes heightened level of arousal and increased...
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