Terrorism Definition - Listening to the heart wrenching phone calls from passengers on Flight 93 to the answering machines of their loved ones at the Shanksville, Pennsylvania 9/11 memorial, not only provides a deep emotional understanding of the tragedy of terrorism, but also provides a renewed appreciation of the importance of the preparedness required to combat terrorism. Fundamental to creating and sustaining an international coalition of governments and businesses to fight terrorism is an understanding of what constitutes terrorism (Ganor, 2002). The United Nations and other international organizations have struggled to develop an accepted definition of the term “terrorism” because one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter (Ganor, 2002; Liou & Lin, 2008). Therefore, defining terrorism is paramount to understanding and developing cooperative responses to the escalating threat of terrorism. The underlying characteristic of terrorism is the use of violent conflict (Jain & Grosse, 2009; Ganor, 2002) with the aim to induce terror into society (Jain & Grosse, 2009). Ganor’s (2002) highly referenced work in defining terrorism provides a broad objective definition of terrorism based on accepted international laws and normative principles of behavior during violent conflict. Ganor’s (2002) definition of terrorism is “the deliberate use or the threat to use violence against civilians in order to attain political, ideological and religious aims”. A summary framework for further understanding and differentiating terrorism from other means and ends (Ganor, 2002) of both conventional and asymmetric warfare is provided in Figure 4. Ganor’s (2002) definition of what constitutes terrorism provides the foundational...
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...s were researched by Darendeli and Hill (2015) in how market and non-market activity affects multi-national enterprise legitimacy during Libya’s political turmoil. As previously noted, Bader and Berg (2013) researched the human resource impact of terrorism induced stress on expatriate employees from multi-national corporations during assignments in high risk countries. Expanding research into one of the three remaining understudied research areas in Czinkota’s et al. (2010) roadmap, this paper studies the organizational preparedness (Czinkota et al., 2010) of international businesses and the associated importance of enterprise resilience (Branzei & Abdelnour, 2010; Czinkota et al., 2010). The next section of the paper provides an overview of the conceptual model and hypothesis of the relationships within the model of terrorism and international business preparedness.
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- Terrorism Definition - Listening to the heart wrenching phone calls from passengers on Flight 93 to the answering machines of their loved ones at the Shanksville, Pennsylvania 9/11 memorial, not only provides a deep emotional understanding of the tragedy of terrorism, but also provides a renewed appreciation of the importance of the preparedness required to combat terrorism. Fundamental to creating and sustaining an international coalition of governments and businesses to fight terrorism is an understanding of what constitutes terrorism (Ganor, 2002).... [tags: Terrorism, September 11 attacks]
1755 words (5 pages)
- It seems as though our time politically has been revolving around the war on terrorism. But what exactly is the war on terrorism. And is it really the greatest terror threat to the U.S.. This war was initiated after the September 11, 2001 attacks that took thousands of American lives on American soil. This sparked intense fear not only in the U.S. but also globally. As a result, our government is constantly seeking terrorists and terrorist organizations abroad that pose a direct threat to our country; however, what about the terror threat that thrives from within our borders.... [tags: Terrorism, Federal Bureau of Investigation]
737 words (2.1 pages)
- Given the growing global threats of terrorism, it is significant that an understanding of the history, nature and mechanism-premises under which terror operates is obtained. This is significant as it would shape the perspective of policy makers when addressing issues of this nature. Terrorism, as it is understood is the action of none-state weak actors, individual or groups, who for some reasons feels suppressed, marginalized and, or denied what they may view as the basic human right. All terrorism has political objectives, even though the perpetrators may use religious relics to appeal to a wider existing audience, and invoke a response through violent act to prove or propagate their point.... [tags: Terrorism]
1793 words (5.1 pages)
- The current government of Sudan led by the Arab leader Omar el-Bashir can be blamed for the terror and conflict that enveloped Sudan in the last decades. Omar el-Bashir has always been criticized for only defending and acting on the interests of the Arab Muslims located in the Northern Sudan while ignoring the Christians and Animist population in the south. The conflict that unfolded in these regions along with violence, hostility and dislocation of many people can be connected with the reign of the Arab leader in Sudan.... [tags: Terrorism ]
1301 words (3.7 pages)
- Many investigations and research have been done in an effort to discover and defend against terrorism. Through my research I have discovered a plethora of literature that confirms this notion. This review will focus primarily on two different aspects that work coherently to frame the big picture of our nation’s Achilles’ heel, better known as the southwestern border. These two aspects are: Muslim extremist targeted recruits and how the United States economy is intertwined. The selection of literature that I have compiled is contextually different, because they are used for various other reasons.... [tags: Terrorism]
1472 words (4.2 pages)
- Domestic terrorism in the United States can be dated back to 1865 with the organization of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) in the South following the Civil War, when white supremacist used violence to intimidate and harm African Americans and supporters of the freed slaves. The organization was labeled a terrorist organization and outlawed in 1871, however small groups still exist today. (Zalman, 2011) The 1920’s saw a short spike in domestic terrorist attacks from Anarchist and the KKK. However, few incidents of domestic terrorism existed until the 1960’s when groups such as the Black Panthers and the Weathermen (aka The Weather Underground) formed, and the attacks have continued to grow over the ye... [tags: Terrorism ]
1401 words (4 pages)
- While the world focused its main effort on the war against terrorism to the Middle East, the African continent is silently grows as a safe haven for terrorist groups. Although these terrorist groups operate in different countries under different names, their connection to the most known international terror organizations is noticeable. For decades, countries of East, North and West Africa have been experiencing several heinous terrorist attacks that resulted into deaths of hundreds of people. The African states through African Union regarded terrorism as one of their major security concerns that needs collective action.... [tags: Terrorism ]
1990 words (5.7 pages)
- Response Paper One Governments today face threats from many different types of terrorism ranging from domestic to international, the biggest threat being terrorism with religious motivations. Religious terrorism can be generally defined as a violent action sanctioned or commanded by a divine entity for the good of the religion (Casserleigh, A., & Merrick, D. (2013)).Violence in the name of religion has been happening for centuries. One could look back to the invasion of the Middle East during the Crusades and find that it fits the modern definition of religious terrorism quite well.... [tags: Terrorism, September 11 attacks]
788 words (2.3 pages)
- The Progression of Terrorism Homeland Security is a moderately new agency that was created by the president, George W. Bush, because of the terrorist attacks on America. President Bush vowed to never let an attack happen to America again. Therefore he created the agency, of Homeland Security. This group watches Americans and the world tremendously close. The mission statement of this group is to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States, lessen America 's vulnerability to terrorism, reduce the damage and recover from attacks that do occur.... [tags: Iraq War, George W. Bush, Terrorism, United States]
1088 words (3.1 pages)
- Terrorism like any other political concepts has encountered various definitions by different scholars and organizations. It has no precise or broadly accepted definition, but to put it in a description way, it would be simply stating terrorism as “a violence or the threat of violence calculated to create an atmosphere of fear and alarm – in a word, to terrorize- and thereby bring about some social or political change” (Rapoport, 2002). Furthermore, the term of terrorism has been defined by the U.S.... [tags: Terrorism Essays]
2156 words (6.2 pages)