There are many issues teachers and students encounter in educational contexts centering on teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL). Many of the major issues addressed here are also relevant to teaching students American Sign Language (ASL), as well as other signed and spoken languages. The goal of this paper is to conduct a review of current research and literature of ELL/EFL/ESL/TESOL/TEFL/ESP/TOEFL/IELTS peer-reviewed publications that address these teaching-learning contexts and the key focus areas of culture diversity, sociolinguistic variation, the use of innovative technologies for language teaching and learning, language assessment, and language modalities. Each of these concepts will be extrapolated to include both signed and spoken languages. The paper is divide into five major sections; literary review, main topics and central issues needing addressing, further research and conclusion.
Definitions and Acronyms
Teaching to English as a Second Language learner is complex and it is astute to explain the multitude of acronyms and definitions associated with this sphere of study to establish a baseline and universal understanding to assist in reading this paper. The major acronyms of this paper are ELL/EFL/ESL/TESOL/TEFL/ESP/TOEFL/IELTS.
Language Learners Acronyms
ELL represents English Language Learner, and identifies a child or an adult non-native English speaker learning English. The next two acronyms, EFL and ESL share similar characterstics. The acronym EFL, represent English as a Foreign Language and ESL represent English as Second Language, although similar, and these acronyms represent different clusters of learners. The key distinction is founded by the location the student st...
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...n non-trained individual and online evaluation. The validity of the assessments is subjection with the exception of official standardized tests. Academia subscribes to standardized testing as a facilitator to admission to universities and colleges. Based on the University of Tennessee’s Admission Guide for Graduate International Students (n.d., para. 4) “passing marks are 550, 213, 80, and 6.5 for paper-based, computer-based, internet-based (iBT) TOEFL, and IELTS” qualifying the student for admission, but not guaranteeing it.
However, this is not a valid assessment for someone who is a migrant worker and has the necessity to communicate in his non-native language for interpersonal communication. Likewise, these standardized tests are not beneficial or applicable to K-12 because they issue their own standardized testing governed by the Department of Education.
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