The Tanzimat Ottoman Reforms
Tanzimat was the period of transformation where reforms were instituted to modernize the Ottoman Empire in the middle seventeen century. Under the rule of Sultan Abd AL-Majid, the empire was threatened by advances made by the western powers in gaining control of the regions that were once under the empire. Additionally, the empire was losing popularity where numerous regions were struggling to break away from the empire. Therefore, the empire realized the need for reforms that will incorporate all the citizens who were divided along tribal and religious lines.
Reasons for Tanzimat Introduction
The reforms came at a time when the Ottoman Empire was facing a crisis due the social and economic shifts in other parts of the world. The empire was oppressing dwellers in the southeastern Europe; therefore, the communities were fighting to break away from the empire. The western powers were associated with liberation and people living in these regions were living in freedom compare to the governance offered by the Ottoman Empire. Therefore, the Ottoman Empire instituted reforms to offer the same opportunities provided by their rivals in the west.
The Reforms Constituted
The ministry of foreign affairs inspired a series of reforms that were derived from other societies especially the western nations. Farming taxes were abolished under the reforms to provide all farmers with an opportunity to compete with farmers from the western countries. Additionally, the education system was greatly reformed to accommodate non-religious subjects such as science and literature. This reform also allowed all the religions in the empire to have the freedom to access their education ...
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...res and the Armenian Genocide were carried out by Muslim population since they could not address the issue in a legal manner. Instead of creating harmony, the reforms generated enmity among citizens along religious lines.
The Tanzimat reforms instituted by the Ottoman Empire introduced western way of life especially in education and governance. The Muslim dominance in the Middle East was reduced to accommodate other religions such as Christianity by allowing freedom of worship. Additionally, monopolies were lifted, fairer taxes were introduced, and schools were secularized with a change in the judicial system. However, the intention of the emperor to compete with the western powers was not successful. Despite numerous changes that were instituted, the western powers continued to increase its influence while the Ottoman Empire continued to disintegrate.
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