The purpose of this paper is to explore signs and symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep apnea. This happens to be a sleep disorder that is described by someone who has continual episodes of interruption of breathing while asleep. The term “apnea,” means “absence of breathing.” During this disorder, the period of apnea can last anywhere from 10 seconds to a couple of minutes at a time. The duration can be from a minimum of five to thirty times per hour during the night. This type of disruption of sleep has major drawbacks, which include daytime sleepiness and chronic sleep deprivation.
There are three different types of sleep apnea. The first and more rare type is central sleep apnea (CSA). In CSA, the central nervous system is involved where the brain fails to signal the initiation of the muscles that controls the breathing. The second and most common type is called obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA, an individual’s respiratory passage will collapse and constriction occurs when asleep. Airflow through the passages will either stop completely or even partially (hypopnea). The third and last type is complex or mixed sleep apnea. This type of sleep disorder is a combination of CSA and OSA. Since obstructive sleep apnea is the most common of the three, I will be referring more to this type of sleep apnea.
Among older people, sleep apnea is common. 1 out of 100 Americans suffer from sleep apnea. There are a few signs and symptoms that one should be aware about this disorder. An individual with obstructive sleep apnea experiences snoring, choking or gasping for air while asleep, snorting sounds and labored breathing while asleep, repeated termination of breathing during sleep, nocturia (constant need to ur...
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...slowest waves are at 1 to 3 cycles per second (CPS). The theta waves are at 4 to 7 cycles per second, and lastly the alpha activity measured at 8 to 12 cycles per second. This ramps up the runs of the sleep spindles, beta, gamma, and then fast and superfast activity. The predominant frequency of the EEG waves is dependent upon the classification of sleep into its basic stages.
A test to record the electrical activity in the skeletal muscles is called the electromyogram (EMG). This will detect muscle twitching and muscle tone by also placing electrodes in those areas. With this test, for a normal person, it is expected that muscles are inactive while in REM sleep. In other stages, the electromyogram can reveal movements from the legs and arms, face twitching, and teeth grinding. Electrodes can also be placed on the skin of the jaw muscles as well as the shin muscles.
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