The disease has 3 stages of infection which are as follows:
1. Acute Infection Stage:
Once a person is infected with HIV, the acute infection phase begins with increased viral replication. This occurs within the first 4 weeks of the infection and is characterized by rapid replication of the virus. This results in the destruction of the CD4 T-cells because the virus replicates with in these cells, destroying them in the process. At some point the virus reaches a viral set point when the viral load in the patient is at a constant level and the CD4 cell count in the patient begins to rise but remains lower then initial pre-infection levels. It is during this stage the patient develops flu like symptoms due to the rapid replication of the virus in the body. During this stage the patient is highly contagious and can transmit the HIV infection.
2. Clinical Latency:
During this phase the virus continues to replicate in the body but at a very low rate and majority of the patients remain symptoms free during this stage. In other words this phase is also called “Chronic HIV infection”. Patient is still able to transmit HIV during this stage.
3. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS):
This is the phase where the immune system is damaged to such an extent that the body becomes prone to opportunist...
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...e in the low to middle income countries of which the most significant is Sub-saharan Africa. Because of this huge epidemiologic burden of HIV that is prevalent in all parts of the world there is a huge economic burden and it poses a great challenge to humanity. Due to this reason there was exceptional movement to address this challenge. In 1996 UNAIDS was an entity that came into existence by the United Nations which worked by increasing awareness, providing resources and allocating resources with increased funding from the global community for AIDS. This included the political movements via United Nations for cheaper medicine by the countries like India to be available for low income populations. With these interventions and global response the impact of the HIV epidemic on social, psychological, behavioral and economics of human population has become under control.
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