Essay on Symptoms And Symptoms Of Asthma

Essay on Symptoms And Symptoms Of Asthma

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Asthma is a long-term inflammation disorder of airways, causing variable airflow obstruction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, mucosal oedema, and increased production of mucus. Difficult or laboured breathing and wheezing, which is a narrowing of the airways are the definitive signs and symptoms of asthma (Schumann, 2010). In Greek, asthma means short of breath (Holgate, 2010). Atopic asthma, also known as extrinsic asthma is triggered by the environment and is the most common type of asthma. In children, severe acute exacerbation of asthma is a condition where there is an increased severity of a disease that does not respond to treatment like bronchodilators (Nievas & Anand, 2013). Inflammation of the airways is the foremost pathologic feature of asthma (Brashers, 2010). Several cells and cellular components are relatively responsible for the inflammatory response in an asthma attack including mast cells, eosinophils, dendritic cells, T-lymphocytes and damaged epithelial cells (Brashers, 2010). The airway epithelium is responsible in regulating responses to allergens that contribute to asthma pathogenesis (Schumann, 2010). There are two types of airway cell, which is responsible for the pathogenesis of asthma. The first line of defence against inhaled antigen is the epithelial cells. It is an important contributor to airway obstruction because it initiates inflammation of airway and generate excessive mucus production. The main cause of obstruction in airway is the smooth muscle due to its excessive contraction (Erle & Sheppard, 2014). In asthmatic, the linings of the bronchial respond to several causes, making the smooth-muscle contracts that severely constrict the airways.

When an asthmatic inhaled an allergen it will trigg...


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...013). Furthermore, reduced heart rate is a sign of improvement. To achieve the therapeutic effect of the drug and lessen the risk of worsening hypoxemia, aerosol inhalation should be used moderately. Salbutamol has no serious side effect but to ease any symptoms, rest and reassurance are recommended (Tiziani, 2013).

The usual untoward effects of Ipratropium are dry mouth, bitter taste, dysphagia, thirst, nausea and vomiting (Saharan, Lodha & Kabra, 2010). However, if there are signs of an allergic reaction such as hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of face, lips and tongue the medication should be stop. During child’s administration, it is recommended to continuously supervise and monitor respiratory status until completed dose is administered. In addition, an auscultation of lungs before and after inhalation helps to distinguish any changes (Tiziani, 2013).


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