On the other hand, development in some nations and kingdoms situated in urban areas, compared, if not rivaled, other cities that located in Europe and Asia. When Dutch traders arrived in Africa at the end of the 13th century, they highlighted development in Benin City (Nigeria) in West Africa:
By the 1500s, Timbuktu (Mali) was at least five times bigger than the city of London and, along with present day Ghana, was considered the wealthiest African nations. These African cities were well-planned and laid out on structured grids. Some cities contained intricate sewage systems and defined streets. Moreover, a ruler in a Nigerian town ordered the paving of streets. A Portuguese trader and interpreter, Duarte Barboosa, said of the east African city Kilwa:
Royal leaders in many African kingdoms lived in the lap of luxury and their opulent municipalities reflected their lifestyle. Winwood Reade, a Brit...
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...e, or Bantu people, were identified by their tufted Kuba cloths. Colors of cloths also had various cultural meanings for various ethnic groups. While some thing groups considered red as a sign of wealth, other groups view red as a sign of evil.
Weavers developed rich colors in communal pits in which kola nuts were mashed and pulverized to make deep red shades; and various shades of blue were created with processed indigo. Other dyes were developed with plants, herbs, fruits, tree bark, and meat; and, compound chemicals such as iron, sulfur, and zinc, sulfur to enhance colors. Women passed down embroidery hand-stamping, stenciling, and embellishment techniques to younger female kin demonstrating how to enhance fabrics with creative surface designs comprised of fermented mud. They also adorned cloths with glass and shell bead embellishments as a display of status.
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