A. Definition of routine activities approach.
According to Cohen and Felson (1979), routine activities approach relies on three main conditions to rationalize crime. These conditions need to coincide in the same space and time in order for a crime to occur: a motivated offender, suitable target and the absence of capable guardians to deter crime. The authors utilized human ecological theory to examine social structure, and how such coincidence takes place and cause crime in daily life. They believe that people lifestyles increase the opportunity for crime especially when they leave their homes (Cohen & Felson, 1979).
Children’s lifestyles could be an important factor in child sexual abuse cybercrimes as they are a bit different from adult lifestyles. If we explore children’s lifestyle in general, it is typically at home nearby their families. According to routine activities approach, children are safer given the circumstances. However, the internet still increases the opportunity for crime as it continues connecting people around the world and shortens distances. The world now is similar to a small village. Every time children access the internet, in reality, they step out of their doorsteps to a different world and this is why the internet becomes unsafe environment to them. In fact, child sexual abuse cybercrime at early stages could simply takes place in the child own room, where parents think it is the safest place for their child.
Another important aspect is that authors focus on the coincidence of space and time of all three factors for a crime to occur. Applying this approach to cybercrimes, I find it a little difficult to include space in the equation, as internet eliminated...
... middle of paper ...
...outine activities theory. In the virtual world, if there were no motivated offenders looking for children to abuse, it would have been a safer place for children. Not to mention that internet created an inviting environment for offenders to communicate with children. It appears that the author did not give motivated offenders major attention, as it did not have a direct relationship to child sexual abuse crime incidents compared to the other two factors based on the study findings.
The author shares with me the idea of how routine activities theory would be suitable to explain child sexual abuse crime incidents and how that enhances the theory by making it broader. This applicability was obvious in the study through child sexual abuse incidents increase especially when a suitable target and the absence of a capable guardian coincide in space and time (Andrews, 2004).
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- There are many definitions to theory. According to Akers, “theories are tentative answers to the commonly asked questions about events and behavior.” Theory is a set of interconnected statements that explain how two or more things are related, based upon a confirmed hypotheses and established multiple times by disconnected groups of researchers. There are six elements that make a theory sound. These elements are scientific criteria provide whether or not the theories are scientific. The most important of these elements is empirical validity, which uses evidence to confirm or disprove a theory and have criteria for interpreting data as factual, irregular or unrelated.... [tags: Law Enforcement Essays]
1025 words (2.9 pages)
- Routine Activities Theory I chose the routine activities theory because to me this theory is one of the biggest and most important theories in Juvenile Delinquency itself. Many people may not understand what the routine activity theory is about and it may be confusing to them. This theory has been played around with many times and by many researchers. The first researchers to develop the theory were Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson. Lawrence and Marcus theorized that rates increase because prosperity of contemporary society allows many more chances for juveniles to steal and commit crimes.... [tags: Criminology, Juvenile delinquency, Crime, Theft]
943 words (2.7 pages)
- There are many definitions to theory. According to Akers (2009) “theories are tentative answers to the commonly asked questions about events and behavior” (Akers, (2009, p. 1). Theory is a set of interconnect statements that explain how two or more things are related in two casual fashions, based upon a confirmed hypotheses and established multiple times by disconnected groups of researchers. There are six elements that make a theory sound. These elements are scientific criteria that provide whether or not the theories are scientific.... [tags: Criminology ]
1788 words (5.1 pages)
- Physical abuse, the act when someone intentionally damages another party involving contact envisioned to cause feelings of physical discomfort, objection, or other physical distress and bodily harm ("Child Physical Abuse"). Physical maltreatment occurred among animals, too. In most cases, physical abused offenders tend to be the victims of the same physical misuse, but adults can be victims as well without the same effect. Physically abused children be prone to the risk of later interpersonal problems (of or relating to relationships or communication between people) involving aggressive behavior, and adolescents are at a greater risk for substance mishandling ("Long-term physical and mental... [tags: long term consequences, types of abusers]
591 words (1.7 pages)
- Criminologist have made many different theories to try to discover why there are criminals and how they are different from noncriminals. Rational Choice Theory and Routine Activities Theory are two examples of the different theories that criminologist have made. Between the two there are similarities and dissimilarities. Rational Choice Theory is “a neoclassical theory asserting that offenders are free actors in their own actions” (Walsh and Hemmens 536). The gist of rational choice theory is a criminal makes the choice to commit the crime; that individuals are rational.... [tags: Criminology, Crime, Neoclassical economics]
1449 words (4.1 pages)
- I. Orientation Routine activities theory states that for a crime to occur three conditions must coincide in the same space and time: a motivated offender, a suitable target, and the absence of a capable guardian. The internet as we know today connects many people from around the world, regardless of age or country, and according to the theory, these circumstances will increase the opportunity of crimes. In this paper, I will analyze how routine activities theory applies to child sexual abuse cybercrimes.... [tags: Crime, Criminology, Police, Crime statistics]
1857 words (5.3 pages)
- In the article “Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach”, Cohen and Felson use an ecological theory perspective to explain the increase in crime rates in the United States of America (USA). They gathered data from the USA Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) from the years 1960 to 1975, in the period they witnessed a growth in crime rate trends. Cohen and Felson (1979) present a theory known as Routine Activity Theory and the three elements required for a crime to occur, while refuting the point of crime causation due to poverty.... [tags: Crime, Criminology, Routine activity theory]
1571 words (4.5 pages)
- more problems with the police, more use of force used by the police, and police misconduct. Because the citizens feel they can’t rely on the police, they often turn to informal ways of handling issues in their community. Routine Activities Theory The routine activity theory looks at how humans live in a rhythm and how their activity can make them an easier target for criminal activity. According to Wheeldon (2011), three things that must be present for a crime to occur: a motivated offender, a suitable target, and a lack of guardianship.... [tags: Criminology, Crime, Police, Violent crime]
874 words (2.5 pages)
Symbolic Interactionism Theory and the Ground of Routine Activities: Ethnomethodology as Portrayed by Harold Garfinkel and Herbert Blumer
- ... He recognizes four main central conceptions about symbolic interactionism crucial to understanding his propositions. People, individually or collectively, are prepared to act based on meanings of objects comprising their world (Blumer, 1969, p. 67). The interactions of persons usually occur in processes where they make indications to one another and interpret each other’s indications. Social actions both individual and collective are constructed through a process in which actors note, assess, and interpret the situations confronting them.... [tags: Interactionism, Psychology]
675 words (1.9 pages)
- The Routine Activity Theory states that there is a higher likelihood for a crime to occur when offenders are motivated to commit a crime; when there is an individual who is an easy target; and there is no person to oversee that the laws in place are not violated. This theory offers a theoretical perspective on why individual bully others on cyberspace, it offers an insight into the different reasons why different people are cyber bullies. According to the theorists, bullies need to be motivated in order to commit to executing such a crime.... [tags: Abuse, Bullying, Cyber-bullying, Crime]
930 words (2.7 pages)