Studies on Plant Responses to Multiple Stresses Essay example

Studies on Plant Responses to Multiple Stresses Essay example

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Plant species commonly encounter multiple stresses under natural conditions, and the way they survive with these stresses is a major determinant of their ecological breadth. Under natural conditions, plants frequently encounter combinations of stress factors (according to Bazzaz, 1996, Sultan et al., 1998). Studies on plant responses to multiple stresses often deal only with stresses linked to limitations in several resources such as nutrients, inorganic carbon or water availability, light quality or quantity and focus on the optimization of resource acquisition and allocation.
In fixed water, when exposed to increasing nutrient stress, plants tend to have a reduced total dry mass and leaf number (based on Zhang, 1996; Crossley et al., 2002), increased allocation to root and stem and decreased allocation to leaves (by Gedroc et al., 1996; Madsen and Cedergreen, 2002), reduced water content of organs, reduced leaflet number per leaf and reduced specific leaf area. These trait values correspond to adaptations usually observed in nutrient-poor habitats.
Most natural environments are continuously suboptimal with respect to one or more environmental parameters, such as water or nutrient availability. To date, most research on the physiological responses of plants to environmental stress has focused on the responses of plants to specific stresses (Osmond et al. 1987) for example, F. Stuart Chapin III is a professor in the Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, 1991 American Institute of Biological Sciences.
All plants respond to stress of many types in basically the same way plants adjust in response to salt and water stress (Morgan 1984), increase their potential to absorb nutrients in respons...

... middle of paper ... single known deficiency when two or more elements are deficient simultaneously. Sometimes, mineral deficiency symptoms are confused by other complex field events such as damage caused by insect-pest, water stress, pollution, disease, salt stress light, and temperature injury (Bennett,1993) and herbicide damage. Therefore, it is necessary to critically observe and define these deficiency symptoms.
Generally, nutrient deficiency in the plant occurs when a nutrient is insufficient in the growth medium or cannot be absorbed and assimilated by the plants due to unfavorable environmental conditions. Nutrient disorders limit crop production in all types of soil around the world. For example, nutritional stress imposed on the alfalfa plant by an inadequate supply of sulfur altered the course of changes in composition which usually attend its ontogenetic development.

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