The Circulatory System
The human circulatory system, or cardiovascular system, is made up of the heart, blood and blood vessels. The circulatory system has three functions: transportation of substances, protection from disease and regulation of temperature. The heart pumps blood to our body tissues via a network of blood vessels. Humans have a closed circulatory system that is in two parts; the systemic circulation and the pulmonary circulation. The systemic system carries oxygenated blood around the body and deoxygenated blood back to the heart, the pulmonary system carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, and the oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart.
The heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity, between the lungs. It is divided into a left and right side by the septum and has four chambers; right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and left ventricle. The right side of the heart deals with deoxygenated blood and the left side deals with the oxygenated blood. Blood flows through the heart one way and there are four valves in the heart to prevent blood flowing backwards.
Blood that is depleted of oxygen enters the right atrium of the heart from the inferior and superior vena cava vein, it passes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The blood is then pumped through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery and travels to the lungs to be oxygenated. The pulmonary artery is the only artery in the body that carries deoxygenated blood. From the lungs, the blood that is now high in oxygen, travels back to the heart via the pulmonary vein and into the left atrium, it passes through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle. The oxygenated b...
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...sperses fats, enabling their absorption. Intestinal juices contain the enzymes sucrase, maltase and lactase, these three enzymes break down the carbohydrates sucrose, maltose and lactose into glucose and fructose. As the liquid passes through the jejunum and ileum, the nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through capillaries in the finger-like villi on the walls of the intestine.
Once all nutrients have been absorbed in the small intestine, the liquid of undigested waste passes into the colon, or large intestine. The colon has four parts: the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and the sigmoid colon. As the liquid waste travels through the colon, most of the water is absorbed and the remaining undigested food is turned into faeces. The rectum connects the colon and the anus, faeces is stored in the rectum ready for elimination via the anus.
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