Deffenbacher, Bornstein, Penrod, and McGorty (2004) conducted a meta-analytic review intending to determine the effects of high levels of stress on memory of eyewitnesses. It was argued that much of the confusion in determining the effect of stress on memory was because many studies do not actually push participants to a high enough stress level. This review excluded any studies that did not elevate participant's stress level to elicit a defensive response or activation mode of attention control. This defensive response as defined by Deffenbacher et al is characterized by a pronounced change in physiological measures of stress. These measures include increased heart rate, blood pressure and muscle tone (2004). Two meta-analysis were conducted in this review. One attempted to determine whether stress impacted the ability of an individual’s facial recognition. Moderator variables were also examined that might impact the results of these studies. The second analysis examined the accuracy of eyewitness recall of details and the impact of stress. Additionally, the effect of other variables which may have influenced detail recall were also examined.
The conclusion of the first analysis was that stress did in fact have a negative effect on eyewitness identification accuracy (Deffenbacher et al., 2004). This is the outcome that was expected, however numerous other variables were discovered to have an impact on whether eyewitness memory was found to be impacted by stress. These variables were; lineup type, research paradigm, presence or absences of a staged crime, and witness age.
Lineup type, meaning either a target present (TP) or target absent (TA) was found to moderate the effect of stress on memory. Target present lineups had a m...
... middle of paper ...
...hat seen in studies that used other methods of causing stress.
Deffenbacher et al. Produced strong findings that stress did have a negative impact on memory both in terms of identification and ability to recall details. However, only studies that caused a particular kind of stress were examined. Studies that only produced orienting responses in participants were included, instead studies that produced a defensive response were used. Included (2004). Additionally, stress had to be controlled directly by the experimenter naturalistic studies were not included. Finally studies had to prove that stress had actually been induced it could not just be assumed to have occurred.
Deffenbacher, K. A., Bornstein, B. H., Penrod, S. D., & McGorty, E. K. (2004). A meta-analytic review of the effects of high stress on eyewitness memory. Psychology Faculty Publication
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Everyone has felt the weight of the world coming down on them at some point in their life. Whether they knew it or not this is a symptom of suffering from stress. Throughout this paper I will be discussing stress factors, types of stress, stress disorders and ultimately how to cope with stress. Stress can result in psychological, physiological, and sociological effects. By definition, stress is any uncomfortable "emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological and behavioral changes.”(Baum 1990) There are three levels of stress; acute, episodic, and chronic.... [tags: Posttraumatic stress disorder, Stress]
902 words (2.6 pages)
- As a college student and as a human it is normal to be stressed, everyone has different things to stress about and how they handle it. Well knowing that I have to try to write a fairly good essay it’s just another thing to be stressed about. I took all 3 of the surveys about stress because I felt I wanted to completely understand how much I am stressed and how I respond to stress. Before I took the test I thought I was going to be way more stressed than normal because it felt like it. After taking the “stressed out” test I discovered that my stress was at a normal/average level.... [tags: Physical exercise, Exercise, Stress]
745 words (2.1 pages)
- The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 horrified Americans everywhere. Watching friends, family, and countrymen struggle to survive in a way that no one should have to endure. To this day, the events that occurred on September 11th live on in the memories of all that witnessed them. For some, however, the experience lived on. Those who had been in the towers when the planes struck began experiencing nightmares and flashbacks of that fateful day. These people were suffering from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.... [tags: Stress]
1132 words (3.2 pages)
- Many people in high school, mostly teens, experience dozens of pressure in their life. To be specific, Schoolwork. Most teens want to excel in school, but want to have a social life or play some kind of sport. One thing that teens don’t understand is that once you’re out of high school, you have college, and then maybe graduate school. Our education will not be over just in High School. You have to work hard and these four years of your life, will impact everything that you do. If you mess up even once, it may ruin everything.... [tags: Stress]
875 words (2.5 pages)
- Stress doesn’t come from now where. Every thing in life has cause and effect. That’s the nature of life. In our modern life we start to hear the world (stress) a lot. When I asked my grandpa about it, his expression was blank as if he didn’t know what I’m talking about. I think it been commonly used nowadays because the fast rhythm of life that pushes people to fight with time to keep up with the flow. Stress affects our life in different ways and levels the highest is the worst. It has a negative thoughts and feelings on people.... [tags: stress, psychology, ]
609 words (1.7 pages)
- Stress is part of our lives. We live with it, deal with it, and above all worry about it. Our way of life, the area in which we live, the economy, and our jobs can cause a great deal of stress. Not everyone deals with the same level of stress and there are several factors that can impact our lives and cause us to have higher or lower stress levels. We can have stress caused by Cataclysmic events which according to Feldman (2009) are events that can affect many people at the same time and are “disasters such as tornado and plane crashes, as well as terrorist attacks”.... [tags: Stress Management]
2024 words (5.8 pages)
- I. What Is Stress. Stress is the combination of psychological, physiological, and behavioral reactions that people have in response to events that threaten or challenge them. Stress can be good or bad. Sometimes, stress is helpful, providing people with the extra energy or alertness they need. Stress could give a runner the edge he or she needs to persevere in a marathon, for example. This good kind of stress is called eustress. Unfortunately, stress is often not helpful and can even be harmful when not managed effectively.... [tags: Essays on Stress]
3964 words (11.3 pages)
- Job stress has proven to be a difficult issue to tackle. Unlike physical or chemical hazards, there is not an obvious tangible hazardous agent. This issue has also been preempted by corporate stress management, health promotion, or employee assistance programs, which explain stress as a purely personal reaction, and often treat the symptoms, not the causes, of job stress. The occupational stress field also has been plagued by a variety of definitions and difficulties in measurement of stress.(Buunk,De-Jong,Y-Bemas&De wolff,1998) In addition, changes in job design or work organization are often inherently more "systems challenging" and require more radical restructuring of workplaces than red... [tags: Work Related Stress, Job Stress]
2598 words (7.4 pages)
- You haven't been at work for more then twenty minutes and already your day is going down hill. Your phone is ringing off the hook. Papers piled on your desk , and now you have to attend a meeting. Day after day it is the same thing at your job and you have become highly stressed out. In my paper I am going to explain why job stress happens and ways that you can relieve it. One type of stress is job stress. Job stress is when the stressors involved are work related. "NIOSH" the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health states, job stress is the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs o... [tags: Stress Management]
1009 words (2.9 pages)
- Three out of every four American workers describe their work as stressful. According to the Holmes-Rahe Life Events Scale, which rates levels of stress, many of the most stressful events in life are related to the workplace. Some examples are firings, business readjustments and changes in financial status, altered responsibilities, a switch to a different line of work, trouble with the boss, changes in work hours or conditions, retirement and vacations. Workplace stress costs American employers an estimated $200 billion per year in lower productivity, absenteeism, staff turnover, workers' compensation, medical insurance and other stress-related expenses.... [tags: Job Stress]
1873 words (5.4 pages)