1. The strength of a material is the ability of material to resistant an certain load without fracturing. The strength includes yield strength, compressive strength, tensile strength, fatigue strength and impact strength.
The elastic modulus can be described as quotient between stress and strain. It is also used to define as the slope of stress-strain curve in the elastic deformation.
The strain-to-failure can be defined as how much a sample is elongated to failure. Commonly, the lower strain to failure means higher tensile strength and lower ductility.
For the material, toughness is its ability to absorb energy and appear deformation without failure. It can be divided as the combination of strength and ductility.
In the technical textile, the stress-strain curve shows below. Before yield point, this is
Figure 1 the stress-strain diagram
Linear area. this line can be written as σ = E * Є. After yield point, there are non-linear area until fracturing. That is the strain to failure. The toughness is defined as the area of the stress-strain curve.
Figure 1.1 The load relationship between the composite, fiber and matrix
Where, Fo- the load carried by the composite
Ff- the load carried by the fiber
Fm- the load carried by the matrix
L - the length of the composite
As the figure 1.1 shows above, the load carried by the composite is the sum of the load which carried by the fiber and matrix. So,
Fo = Ff + Fm, ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(1)
The extension under the applied force will be the same in the composite, the “δ” represents the extension under the applied force. So, it can be written as a equation,
δc = δm = δf, -----------------------------...
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...s pulled through a die as well. This method is high effective, extremely economically and requires little labour works. However, it is limited in producing constant cross-section products.
8. Automated Clave
The autoclave machine requires highly initial investments due to expensive tooling machine. But it allows to produce more complex surfaces, and used a computer-controlled 5-axis head to apply tows by a mandrel rotating in space. And it can automatically control temperature and pressure. As the result, the products have good quality.
A.F Turbak, Nonwovens: Theory, Process, Performance, and Testing, TAPPI PRESS, ISBN: 0-89852-265-x (1993)
D. Zhang, the application and researches of flash spinning nonwoven, Advanced Materials Research Vols. 332-334 (2011) pp683-686
J. Lunenschloss and W. Albrecht, Non-woven bonded fabrics, ELLIS HORWOOD LIMITED (1985)
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