From a biological standpoint, men and women are defined purely based on the presence of a Y chromosome and certain bodily structures. Throughout history though, cultural and societal beliefs have cultivated an additional ever-changing definition on what it means to be a man or woman, which very much stretches beyond the biological perspective. This separate definition has led to the formation of gender roles that are essentially societal expectations for how a man or woman should behave. While there is little to no evidence supporting the notion that being born a particular sex puts one at greater risk of ill mental health, several studies have been conducted, concluding that gend...
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...ethnically-based. Similar to gender, on a biological basis, being born a particular race does not necessarily predisposition one for ill mental health. However, there are recorded trends of certain racial groups experiencing some specific psychological disorders more than others. For example, a report published by Toronto Public Health in 2013 examined rates of depression between racialized groups. The report found that Black individuals were at greater risk of depressive symptoms in comparison to the White individuals. In addition, a separate study revealed that American Indians showed greater risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence, but lower risk for major depression. Despite these trends, the most important thing to be aware of is that racial and ethnic minorities have less access to mental health service, compared to Whites.
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