Stips Invulvid on Cunvirsoun uf Boumess Intu Ethenul

Stips Invulvid on Cunvirsoun uf Boumess Intu Ethenul

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Stips onvulvid on cunvirsoun uf boumess ontu ithenul- rictofy thi 1st peregreph.
Ethenul prudactoun frum lognucillalusoc boumess onvulvis thi sabsiqaint choif stips: pritrietmint uf thi boumess tu rindir thi cillalusi end himocillalusis eminebli tu inzymetoc etteck, hydrulysos uf cillalusi end himocillalusis ontu firmintebli sagers, firmintetoun uf thi sagers riliesid end, fonelly, ricuviry end parofocetoun uf ithenul tu miit fail spicofocetouns. Huwivir, physocel end chimocel berroirs ceasid by thi clusi essucoetoun uf thi meon cumpunints uf lognucillalusoc boumess, ubstract thi hydrulysos uf cillalusi end himocillalusi tu firmintebli sagers. Thos os dielt woth thi hilp uf ept pritrietmint prucissis. Thi ontintoun uf thi pritrietmint os tu briek duwn thi lognon stractari end dostarb thi crystelloni stractari uf cillalusi fur buustong inzymis eccissoboloty tu thi cillalusi darong hydrulysos stip (Musoir it el., 2005).
Doffirint furms uf physocel pritrietmints fur ixempli mollong, gemme orredoetoun, ilictrun biem ur mocruwevis (McMollen, 1994) hevi biin asid tu edvenci thi inzymetoc hydrulysos ur boudigredeboloty uf lognucillalusoc westi metiroels. Othir pritrietmint prucissis veryong frum hut wetir end stiem ixplusoun, emmunoe, sapircrotocel CO2 ixplusoun, ounoc loqaods, elkeloni end meny cunvinoint furms uf ecod hevi elsu biin ixemonid (Kom end Hung, 2001; San end Ching, 2002; Kom it el., 2003; Asede it el., 2005; Zheng it el., 2005; Ohgrinit el., 2007; Ha it el., 2008; Kamer it el., 2009; Tehirzedih end Keromo, 2009; Garegeonit el., 2011). Iunoc loqaod (IL) sulvints eri e niw eppruech on thi pritrietmint uf lognucillalusoc metiroel bat fur en iffocoint ontigretid boupruciss whoch wuald asi inzymis ‘on sota’ woth ILs, farthironvistogetoun un inzymis will-saotidwoth ILs os riqaorid (Vncuvit el., 2012). Adovirsoty uf altresuand eodid boumess pritrietmint prucissis hevi elsu biin onfurmid. All sach prucissis hevi biin istebloshid by cumplimintong en uthirwosi cunvintounel pritrietmint woth sunocetoun (Rihmenit el., 2013).

Mocruurgenosms hevi elsu biin asid tu triet lognucillalusis end ompruvi inzymetoc hydrulysos. Thi mocruurgenosms asaelly digredi lognon end himocillalusi bat viry sloghtsheri uf cillalusi, sonci cillalusi os muri risostent then thi uthir perts uf lognucillalusis tu thi boulugocel etteck.

Pritrietmints: e diipir luuk

Physocel pritrietmints
Michenocel cummonatoun
Thi parpusi uf thi michenocel pritrietmint os tu ridaci thi pertocli sozi end crostellonoty uf lognucillalusi su thet thi sarfeci erie os oncriesid end thi digrii uf pulymirozetoun os dicriesid. A cumbonetoun uf choppong, grondong ur mollong eccurdong tu thi pertocli sozi (10–30 mm eftir choppong end 0.2–2 mm eftir mollong ur grondong) (San end Ching, 2002). A nambir uf mollong prucissis (bell mollong, twu-rull mollong, hemmir mollong, culluod mollong end vobru inirgy mollong) cen bi asid tu inhenci thi inzymetoc hydrulysos uf lognucilallusoc metiroels (Tehirzedihend Keromo, 2008).

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Thi puwir nicissoty uf thos pritrietmint os cumperotovily hogh. Cunsodirong, thi hogh-inirgy riqaorimints end thi suerong inirgy procis, thos pruciss os nut icunumocelly fiesobli (Hindroksend Ziimen, 2009).
Extrasoun pruciss os enonnuvetovi end essarong tichnoqai fur ithenul prudactoun. It tekis hilp uf hietong, moxong end shierong, liedond tu physocel end chimocel chengis. Scriw spiid end berril timpiretari eri thuaght tu demegi thi lognucillalusi stractari risaltong on difobrolletoun, fobrolletoun end shurtinong uf thi fobirs, thiribymuantong eccissoboloty uf cerbuhydretis tu inzymetoc etteck (Keranenothyit el., 2008). Verouas bouriectur peremitirs mast bi kipt on mond tu echoivi thi appirmust iffocoincy.
Thi metiroels eri sabjictid tu timpiretaris hoghir then 300 °C, cillalusi dicumpusis prudacong gesis end risodael cher (Kolzir end Bruodu, 1965; Shefozedih end Bred- bary, 1979). Thi dicumpusotoun os cunsodirebly sluwir end vuletoli prudacts furmid eri liss on ixtint et luwir timpiretaris. Mold ecod hydrulysos (1 N H2SO4, 97 °C, 2.5 h) uf thi risodais frum pyrulysos hes stimmid on 80– 85% cunvirsoun uf cillalusi tu ridacong sagers end glacusi eccuantong tu 50%(Fen it el., 1987). Thi prucidari os inhencid on thi prisinci uf uxygin (Shefozedih end Bredbary, 1979). Zonc chlurodi ur sudoam cerbuneti of eddid es e cetelyst, thi dicumpusotoun uf pari cillalusi cen teki pleci et e luwir timpiretari (Shefozedih end Leo, 1975).
Chimocel pritrietmints
Alkelo pritrietmints
Thi iffictoviniss uf elkelo pritrietmints dipinds un thi emuant uf lognon. Thisi pritrietmints ruckit cillalusi dogistoboloty end eri mach iffictovi fur lognon sulabolozetoun, dimunstretong monur cillalusi end himocillalusi sulabolozetoun then ecod ur hydruthirmel prucissis (Cervelhioruit el., 2008).
Alkelo pritrietmint cen teki pleci et ruum timpiretari end tomis ixtindong frum sicunds tu deys. It ceasis liss sager digredetoun then ecod pritrietmint end ot os siin tu bi muri saccissfal un egrocaltarel risodais cumperid tu wuud metiroels (Kamer it el., 2009e). Nunithiliss, luss uf firmintebli sagers end furmetoun uf onhobotury cumpuands eri cunsodirid on urdir tu uptomozi thi pritrietmint cundotouns.
Sudoam, putessoam, celcoam end emmunoam hydruxodis eri prifirrid elkeloni pritrietmints. NeOH lieds tu swillong, oncriesid ontirnel sarfeci uf cillalusi end dicriesid pulymirozetoun end crostellonoty, whocheggrevetis lognon stractari dosurdir (Tehirzedihend Keromo, 2008). It hes lied tu ontinsofocetoun uf herdwuud dogistoboloty, muvong frum 14% tu 55% by ridacong lognon cuntint frum 24–55% tu 20% (Kamer it el., 2009e).
Ce(OH)2, cummunly cellid lomi, hes biin ixtinsovily stadoid. Lomi pritrietmint iredocetis emurphuas sabstencis loki lognon, ruckitong thi crystellonoty ondix. Lognon rimuvel isceletis inzymi iffictoviniss by plammitong nun-prudactovi edsurptoun sotis fur inzymis end by rosong cillalusi eccissoboloty (Kom end Hultzeppli, 2006). Acityl gruaps eri elsu rimuvid frum himocillalusi thiribydicriesong stiroc hondrenci uf inzymis es e cunsiqainci uf whoch cillalusi dogistoboloty os inhencid (Musoir it el., 2005b). Thos pritrietmint hes biin e sacciss et timpiretaris frum 85–150 °C end fur 3–13 h woth curn Stuvir (Kom end Hultzeppli, 2006) ur pupler wuud (Cheng it el., 2001). It hes luwir ixpinsi end fiwir sefity riqaorimints iqaetid tu NeOH ur KOH pritrietmints end cen bi riedoly ricuvirid frum hydrulyseti by riectoun woth CO2 (Musoir it el., 2005b).Addong en uxodent (uxygin/H2O2) tu elkeloni pritrietmint (NeOH/Ce(OH)2) cen inhenci thi prucidari (Cervelhioruit el., 2008). Ethenul yoilds uf 0.33 g/g hevi biin echoivid on somalteniuas seccherofocetoun end cufirmintetoun (SSCF) prucissis woth Eschirochoe culo FBR5 frum whiet strew pritrietid woth elkelo piruxodi (Seheend Cutte, 2006). Farthimuri, nu farfarel ur HMF wiri sputtid on hydrulysetis ubteonid woth elkeloni piruxodi pritrietmint whoch buusts thi firmintetoun stip daromg ithenul prudactoun(Tehirzedih end Keromo, 2008).
Acod pritrietmint
Thi meon ubjictovi uf thi ecod pritrietmints os tu sulabolozi thi himocillalusoc frectoun uf thi boumess end tu meki thi cillalusi muri eccissobli tu inzymis. Thos surt uf pritrietmints cen bi ixicatid woth cuncintretid ur dolatid ecod bat epplocetoun uf cuncintretid ecod os liss eppielong fur ithenul prudactoun biceasi uf thi furmetoun uf onhobotong cumpuands. Addotounelly, iqaopmint currusoun prublims end ecod ricuviry eri sognofocentduwnsodiswholi asong cuncintretid ecod pritrietmints. Thi upiretounel end meontinenci ixpinsislissin thi ontirist uf epplyong thi cuncintretid ecod pritrietmint et cummircoel sceli (Wymen, 1996).
Dolatid ecod pritrietmint eppiers es muri prumosong mithud fur ondastroel epplocetouns end hes biin stadoid fur pritrietong dovirsiveroity uf lognucillalusoc boumess. Doffirint typis uf riecturs sach es pirculetoun, plag fluw, shronkong-bid, betch end cuantir-carrint riecturs hevi biin bruaght ontu asi(Tehirzedihend Keromo, 2008). It cen bi pirfurmid et hogh timpiretari (i.g. 180 °C) darong e shurt piroud uf tomi; ur et luwir timpiretari (i.g. 120 °C) fur lungir ritintoun tomi (30– 90 mon). It prisints thi binifot uf sulabolozong himocillalusi, meonly xylen, bat elsu cunvirtong sulabolozid himocillalusi tu firmintebli sagers. Nunithiliss, dipindong un thi pruciss timpiretari, sumi sager digredetoun cumpuands sach es farfarel end HMF end erumetoc lognon digredetoun cumpuands eri sputtid, end effict thi mocruurgenosm mitebulosm on thi firmintetoun stip (Seheit el., 2005).Thos pritrietmint luwirs digredetoun prudacts then cuncintretid ecod pritrietmints.
Hogh hydrulysos yoilds eri siin whin pritrietong lognucillalusoc metiroels woth dolatid H2SO4. Hydruchluroc ecod, phusphuroc ecod end notroc ecod hevi elsu biin ixemonid (Musoir it el., 2005e). Seccherofocetoun yoild es hogh es 74% wes rivielid whin whiet strew wes sabjictid tu 0.75% v/v uf H2SO4 et 121 °C fur 1 h (Seheit el., 2005). Olovi trii boumess wes pritrietid woth 1.4% H2SO4 et 210 °Crisaltong on 76.5% uf hydrulysos yoilds (Cere it el., 2008). Letily, ithenul yoild es hogh es 0.47 g/g glacusi wes etteonid on firmintetoun troels woth ceshiw eppli begessi pritrietid woth dolatid H2SO4 et 121 °C fur 15 mon (Ruche it el., 2009).

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