An ESP course entails rigorous adherence to its absolute characteristics that define it as need based pedagogy which uses specific content and specialized language to help learners acquire proficient use of language in diverse academic or workplace contexts. ESP involves various steps in designing, implementing and assessing a target course. This includes identification of the key issues that are specific to the teaching and learning context, cognizance of the implications for the course design, conducting a comprehensive needs analysis, collating the results of research, analysing data, developing course outline, selecting materials, defining appropriate methodology, developing assessment tools, and evaluating the course for further improvement.
2. Key issues in EAP
2.1. Linguistic Features
The primary aim of any ESP course is to answer the question “why do the learners need to learn the foreign language”? This means the focal emphasis is on helping the learners to communicate accurately and precisely. Therefore, ESP adapts elements from other approaches as a foundation for its own methods and techniques. An ESP course is thus designed to cater for the appropriate structural, functional, and discourse levels learners might need for developing the needed language competence (Hutchinson & Waters: 1987).
a. At the structural level, substitution tables and structural syllabi are very common in ELT. In an ESP course, rather than explaining rules via lecturing, substitution techniques can be employed in a reinforcement exercise.
b. The functional/notional level refers to language in use. An ESP syllabus that includes functions could have topics such as the following: making hotel reservations, giving tour informat...
... middle of paper ...
Robinson, P. (1991). ESP Today: A Practitioner's Guide. London: Prentice Hall.
Thornbury, S., (2006). An A-Z of ELT, Oxford: Macmillan Education.
Underhill, N., (1992). Testing Spoken Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wilkins, D., (1976). Notional Syllabuses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wright, Ch., (1992), The Benefits of ESP, Cambridge Language Consultants, viewed on 11th May, 2011, http://www.camlang.com/art001.htm.
Ypsilandis, G.S. & Kantaridou, Z., (2007). English for Academic Purposes: Case Studies in Europe, Revista de Linguistica y Lenguas Aplicadas (2): 69-83.
R. C. Gardner and P. D. MacIntyre, "A Student's Contributions to Second-Ianguage Leaming. Part
11: Affective variables." Lallguage Teachillg 26 ( 1 993): 1 - 1 1 .
Kalhleen Graves. Designing Language Courses (Bos1On. Heinle and Heinle Publishers. 2(00) 97.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- 1. Assessment and Evaluation 1.1. Monitoring the learning progress Nunan & Lamb (1996) refer to monitoring as an integral part of the learning system which is comprised of assessment of student performance and evaluation of the effectiveness of the course design. According to Dudley-Evans & St. John (1998), “Evaluation is a process which begins with determining what information to gather and which ends with bringing about changes in current activities or future ones. It makes use of quantitative methods (e.g.... [tags: Assessment of an ESP Program]
1464 words (4.2 pages)
- Practical guidelines to syllabus choice and design It is clear that there is no such single type of content which will be appropriate for all teaching settings, and the needs and conditions of each setting are so particular that it is impossible to give specific recommendations for combination. However, a set of guidelines for the process can be offered. As the steps to be used in preparing a practical language teaching syllabus choice can be named the following: 1. Define and estimate, to the possible extend, what results are desired for the students in the instructional program or a course, i.e.... [tags: Education]
1132 words (3.2 pages)
- Selection and organization of content and learning experience In the process of designing a course one of the inevitable steps is to decide on the content and the way of its organization. It includes deciding on a course structure, selecting a teaching strategy which will support learning goals and creating a schedule. The course structure consists of two main elements: the choice concerning the topics and the way of the organization and sequencing of content of the course. It is important to choose and organize the topics in such a way so that it will be aimed at supporting the learning objectives of the course.... [tags: Higher Education ]
1503 words (4.3 pages)
- 2.4.1 Types of syllabus A syllabus is an expression of opinion on the nature of language and leaning; it is considered as a guide for teacher as well as for learner to provide them with the goals to be achieved. Hutchinson and Waters define syllabus in the following way: at its simplest level a syllabus can be described as a statement of what is to be learnt. It reflects language and linguistic performance. [1; p.80] This interpretation is based on results and consequences rather than on process and it is viewed as a traditional explanation.... [tags: Education]
1474 words (4.2 pages)
- Section One: Learning Theories Various learning theories are nested within my lessons, particularly in Drama and Dance subjects where both theoretical and practical aspects are embedded within one lesson. Firstly, Pavlov, Skinner and Thorndyke’s Behaviourist theory will be discussed (Fairclough 2008). Thorndyke’s experiment on animals (Avis et al, 2010) to encourage ‘learned’ behaviour was through a process of trial and error, rewarding animas with food if they were successful in their task. This taught them to purposefully behaviour in a certain way towards reaching successful goals and effectively being rewarded.... [tags: Enabling and Assessing Learning ]
2714 words (7.8 pages)
- In today’s society, there is a larger variety of drugs that are used, drugs have become easily accessible, and drugs are more likely to be misused. Drugs are commonly misused because of the lack of education people have surrounding how the drug should be taken, or what the consequences of taking the drug may be. Drug education is planned information and skills that are relevant to living in a world where drugs have become more commonly misused (Wikipedia, 2013). For teachers, implementing drug education can help individuals to gain knowledge about drugs that they may be introduced to or come into contact with, and help to prevent the use and misuse of drugs among the students in the classroo... [tags: Implementing, School Program]
2491 words (7.1 pages)
- Over the past eight weeks this class has not only fulfilled my major requirements, but also made me understand more about the complexity of child development and how I can become a better person as a future parent and educator. Since I am an Education major, the four topics that would benefit me in the future are Erikson’s stages, Induction, Educational Self Fulfilling Philosophy, and Adolescence. I plan to be successful with my career and use what I have learned in Child Development to prepare future’s leaders of tomorrow.... [tags: Course Reflection]
1725 words (4.9 pages)
- Now that I have completed this course, I can see the course applying to my ministry in the following ways so that I may understand the text and the different ways of preaching each subject. As a preacher, it is necessary to understand how to explain God’s promise in which he will pour His Spirit upon people in every special way so that every man receives a different gift that he who has ears and hearts will listen to God’s words and come to Him. The most significant things to my ministry are that each theme has four main different parts of teaching such as introduction, Law, Gospel, and application.... [tags: Course Review]
1114 words (3.2 pages)
- Looking back over the course of the semester, I feel that I learned many new and interesting uses for technology within the classroom – both for classrooms that have a lot of technology and for classrooms that are limited with technology. For the majority of the class, we utilized William Kists’ book The Socially Networked Classroom: Teaching in the New Media Age (2010), which provided multiple modes of instruction that both utilized and/or created technology. One of the first things that I remember, and consequently that stuck with me through the course’s entirety, is that individuals must treat everything as a text.... [tags: Course Reflection]
979 words (2.8 pages)
- Ability and talent A person's psychic, ESP, or telepathic abilities can't be judged by a single or a group of exercises. This ability develops through time and practice. So, if you don't do well the first time, don't feel bad, the exercises need to be practiced over and over. Be patient and you can expect to see an improvement in all your latent abilities over a period of time, not just in a few tries of guessing cards. Attitude The mind set and attitude at the time of the test are critical. It is important to maintain enthusiasm and interest when testing yourself because it has been found to make a difference.... [tags: essays research papers]
575 words (1.6 pages)