There are two competing schools of thought at work, each with underlying principles and answers to the aforementioned question. Postmodernists agree that the state has become “one actor amongst many”. Postmodernism “depends upon a radical rejection of the past and of all attempts to use the past to understand the present,” and rejects “that history can be interpreted as moving towards a definite goal.” (Gamble, 2000:20-21) Postmodernists also see the decision-making process as pluralistic, spread across departments and organisations with different goals and specialisations, and no one group having absolute power. This means that they see the state as increasingly “hollow”, with recent political changes, due to the delegation of responsibility and use of multiple actors. Late modernity, on the other hand, is the theory that we are still in a state of modernity; that society is developing in a unilinear and purposeful way with clear hierarchy....
... middle of paper ...
...R.D. (1980). Free to choose. San Diego: Harvest Book. pp. 54–64.
Gamble, A. (2000). Politics and fate. Cambridge, UK: Polity. pp. 20-21.
Hague, R. & Harrop, M. (2010). Comparative government and politics, eighth edition. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 80.
Hood, C. (1991). ‘A public management for all seasons?’, Public Administration, 69(1). pp. 3–19.
Ohmae, K. (1990). The borderless world. London, UK: HarperCollins. pp. 17–20.
Osborne, D. and Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government: how the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. pp. 30¬–34.
Schumpeter, J.A. (1950). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York: Harper. pp. 269–283.
Smith, M. (2009). Power and the state. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. pp. 89–108
Strange, S. (1996). The retreat of the state. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 82–87.
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