Physical layer: the physical layers purpose is communication its job is to transport bits across the network media. A complete frame from the data link is only accepted from the layer. The function of the physical is: bit representation, transmission rate, physical Characteristics, Synchronize, Transmission mode, and Physical topology. Some examples of physical layer devices are cables, connectors and transmitters.
There are three basic forms of network media on which data is represented:
Link layer: This layer is where many wired and wireless area network tech functions, some examples of data link layer technologies are Ethernet, FDDI and token ring. When all these devices are connected to a data link layer it becomes a simple network. The main function of data link layer is to provide frames across a single physical connection and provide framing error detection and retransmission of errored frames.
Network layer: This layer deals with the delivery of datagrams. Datagrams are a self-contained independent entity of data carrying information that is to be routed from the source to the destination computer. Addressing information is also contained by the datagrams. The network layer is provides packets delivery between two points, it is also responsible for inter-working between different data link layers protocol.
Transport Layer: The transport layer job is to deal with communication between programs on computer. It provide...
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...mmunicate is determined by the network topology, it may also define how data is transferred between these nodes. The topology can be physical or logical, the physical is the physical layout of the devices on a network and logical is the way that the signals act on the network. The four common network topologies are Star, Bus, Ring, and Mesh topology.
In Bus topology all the devices are connected to each other to the same line
<-This is an example of a Bus Topology, Bus topology is a simple cheap topology but a single problem can affect the whole thing.
Star Topology is where all the nodes are connected to a central device like an HUB, star topology are easy to install and wire, and it’s easy to detect faults but it requires more cable length and more expensive than Bus
Ring topology the computers are connected in a closed loop configuration
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