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Macroenvironmental Analysis for Strategic Management273the gradual erosion of the powerbase of the librar-ies that prevents them from competing effectivelyfor these resources.
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"Stakeholders' View Of Ghana's University Libraries." 123HelpMe.com. 22 Apr 2019
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- Academic libraries have come a long way since their early days. The days when the students and faculty who made up the university were of little consequence have gone. For many decades, the future of the university library has been closely connected with their associated students and faculty. University libraries across the world have strived to become hubs of research and socialization for their academic patrons, and for generations of students they have been. However, 21st century students have something previous generation did not have; a surge of rapidly changing technology which shapes and defines their social, personal, and academic lives.... [tags: NYU, academic library, university library]
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- History Academic libraries have had a long and varied history throughout the world. Very early libraries such as the library of Alexandria in Egypt and the libraries of Mesopotamia are shrouded in mystery but renowned for their devotion to academia. They represented the epitome of knowledge and wisdom in the ancient world. While these ancient libraries may no longer exist as they once did the essence of the library in academia traveled throughout the world and history, manifesting it’s self in the medicinal libraries of Europe and the grandiose libraries of America.... [tags: Historic Academic Libraries, History, Libraries]
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- Stakeholders’ Management – End User Engagement Description, Recognition, Analysis, and Synthesis During the year 2007, my brother was working for a web-development company in Beirut that had established a price-competitive position in the market. That company was successful, for some time at least. The company’s strategy was to take shortcuts where ever possible to reduce the development costs so that the end-product’s pricing would be cheaper than their competitors thus winning customers over. The company was generating profit, for some time, since most of their happy customers were companies that requested basic websites.... [tags: Stakeholder, Stakeholder analysis]
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- Introduction Stakeholders are individuals and constituencies that contribute, either voluntarily or involuntarily, to its wealth-creating capacity and activities, and who are therefore its potential beneficiaries and/or risk bearers1. There are several different types of stakeholders associated with a corporation, and those stakeholders can have different views and opinions on what corporation's goals should be and how they should be running. I have interviewed three different stakeholders of Staples Inc., an employee, a customer and a stock holder, to find their relationship between them and the firm.... [tags: Business Stakeholders ]
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- As digital natives grow older and technology improves it makes one wonder what the fate of libraries will be. Long gone are the days of the card catalog, with computers taking their place. There is no more browsing the stacks for books on what ever subject has peaked interest, because the Dewey decimal system is no longer taught. Gone are the days of shelves of books as far as you can see, taken away to make room for endless banks of computers, movies and cd's. The click of keys and chatter from private rooms used for multiple purposes is steadily replacing the muffled flipping of pages as technology advances.... [tags: Technology, Libraries, Dewey Decimal System]
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- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, a famous American poet, said that “The student has his Rome, his Florence, his whole glowing Italy, within the four walls of his library. He has in his books the ruins of an antique world and the glories of a modern one.” Throughout history, libraries have provided people with a place to learn and develop. In fact, in ancient Egypt, the invading armies burned the Library of Alexandria because they knew the importance of the library to the people’s morale. Also, when an oppressive regime rises to power, one of their first goals deals with libraries, as they know that only by cutting off the knowledge that the libraries provide can they successfully establish their... [tags: Library Science ]
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- Stakeholders Stakeholders: The individuals and groups of people who have an interest in how the business is run. They are said to have a stake in the business. An example of this is the stakeholders for a school. These would be the Head teacher, assistant head teacher, deputy head, head of year, assistant head of year, subject teachers, senior teachers, cleaners, canteen teachers, cooks, mentors, heads of department, caretakers and nurses.... [tags: Papers]
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Edwin Ellis Badu2741992). Others also claimed that the libraries ontheir part lacked the capacities to analyse the en-vironment. That is why the findings of this study-the political and economic sector importance inthe Ghanaian external environment must be takenseriously as posing the most threat to universitylibrary development, so they ought to choose thesesectors among scanning alternatives. The selectionof a given scanning mode by sector executiveshowever is conceptualised as being critically in-fluenced by perceived strategic uncertaintyacross sectors (Daft, Sormunen and Parks 1988).The librarians will have to avoid temporary ap-proaches that postpone the inevitable adjustmentneeded to gain and keep strategic fit. Hunger andWheelan (1995) advise against three basic orien-tations avoidance (ignore or hide), react (react,reorganise or follow the leader) and influence(advertise, lobby, co-opting). Instead libraries willhave to anticipate future developments by plan-ning strategically. This involves the macro-environmental analysis of the strategic positionof the libraries through the identification of op-portunities and threats in the political and eco-nomic environments, particularly governmenteducational reforms, legislation and employment,strength of the Ghanaian currency, import dutiesetc. The data gained may be considered in con-junction with the internal strategic capabilities ofthe libraries as a useful input into managementthinking about future strategic decision-making.ReferencesAdegbite, O. 1986. Planning in Nigeria business, LongRange Planning 19(2): 28 103.Boist, M. and Child J. 1988. The iron laws of fiefs; bu-reaucratic failure and the problem of governance inthe Chinese economic reforms. Administrative Sci-ence Quarterly 33(4): 507 27.Creswell, John. 1994. Research design: qualitative andquantitative approaches. London: Sage.Culnan, M.J. 1983. Environmental scanning: the effectsof task complexity and source accessibility on in-formation gathering behaviour. Decision Science 14:194 206.Cyert, Richard Michael and March, James G. 1992. Abehavioural theory of the firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice Hall.Daft, R.L., Sormunen, J. and Parks, D. 1988. Chief ex-ecutive scanning environmental characteristics andcompany performance: an empirical study. StrategicManagement Journal 9 (2): 123 30.Duncan, R.B. 1972. Characteristics of organisationalenvironments and perceived uncertainty. Administra-tive Quarterly 17: 313 27.Dutton, J.M and R.D. Freedman. 1984. Uncertainty andfirms strategic behaviours. Working paper, New YorkUniversity.Ferguson, S. 1992. Strategic planning in national librar-ies in developing countries: an optimists view IFIAnews 18(4): 33954.Flores, F. 1972. The applicability of American manage-ment practices to developing countries; a case studyof Philippines. Management International Review 12(1):83 89.Franco, Maria Luisa. 1995. Strategic planning of hu-man resource in the library system of the PontificalCatholic University of Chile. Library management16(3): 5 23.Fubara, Bedford A. 1986 Corporate planning in Ni-geria, Long Range Planning 19 (2): 28 103.Hambrick D.C. 1981. Environmental strategy andpower within top management teams. Administra-tive Quarterly 26(1): 253 75.Hambrick, Donald C. 1982. Environmental scanningand organisational strategy. Strategy ManagementJournal 3(2): 159 74Hambrick, D. C. and Mason, P. A. 1984. Upper eche-lons: the organization as a reflection of its top man-agers. Academy of Management Review 9(2, April):193-206.Huber, George P. and Daft, Richard. 1987. InformationEnvironments. In: Putnam, L. et al. (eds.) Handbookof organisational communication: pp.130164. BeverlyHills, CA: Sage.Hunger, J.D. and Wheelan, Thomas L. 1995. Strategicmanagement. 5thed. Reading, Mass: AddisonWesley.Kiggundu, M. N., Jorgensen, J.J. and Hafsi, T. 1983.Administrative theory and practice in developingcountries. Administrative Science Quarterly 28(1): 66-84Miles, R. E., Snow, C.C., and Pfeffer J. 1974. Organisa-tion environment: concepts and issues. IndustrialRelations 13: 244 64.Miliken, F.J. 1987. Three types of perceived uncertaintyabout the environment: state effect and responseuncertainty. Academy of management review 12(1):133143.Miller, K.D. 1993. Industry country effects on manag-er's perceptions of environmental uncertainty. Jour-nal of International Business Studies 24(24): 693 794.Mrema, E.L. 1987. Strategic planning in Tanzania. LongRange Planning 20(3): 165 110.Patton, M.Q. 1980. Paradigms and pragmatism. In: Fet-terman, D.M. (ed.) Qualitative approaches to evaluationin education. New York: Praeger.
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