Sports History Related to Gender: Annotated Bibliography

Sports History Related to Gender: Annotated Bibliography

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For this assignment, I am going to analyze 3 different articles relating to how gender has had an impact on sport through history and how this has affected sport in the modern society.
Sport has always been the prerogative of the male. A double standard exists in society. Males are socialized to use their bodies to please themselves. While females are socialized to use their bodies to please others. Physical prowess, team sports, thats (always been) male turf. (Harris, D, 1987.)

The first article that i have looked at is straight from the internet , i have found this article by performing a ‘GOOGLE SEARCH’. I used the search criteria ‘GENDER IN SPORT’. The article that i have found is called ‘GENDER BARRIERS IN SPORT’
I have taken a quote from the article i beleive it is significant as it shows the narrow mindedness of society, it highlights a problem that simply still exists today.
“Homophobia in sports serves as a way to control women, both gay and straight” (Flanagan.k,2008)
Following on from the quote i found that female athletes in traditionally masculine sports do so by challenging the social dictates about proper behaviour for females, therefore focusing so much on the sexual orientation has unfairly been denied opportunities in sports.
Homophobia causes parents to steer their daughters away from sports that the believe attract lesbians and away from teams in which lesbians are beleive to play or coach, public expressions of homophobic discourse influence and often limit the sports participation choices available to women. (Coaxley, pike 2009, p.277)
The article also looks at how both men and women faced seemingly insurmountable barriers when attempting to break into a spoit that is not “proper or stereotypical for their gender to participate in.
But society seems to be making some headway towards equality in sports their is still a long way to go.
Evidence still shows that as a society we are still far more comfortable with women being involved in the traditional sports such as field hockey rather than boxing and men participating in sports such as rugby rather than synchronized swimming this is because they are pre conceived as “ NORMAL” for a specific gender.
The article highlights the fact that even though more oppprtunties seem to be avaliable to females, their is a signifcant lack of finding, this fact is also mentional by coaxley and pike. In 2001 the womens sports foundation showed that women college sports budgets.

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Their is a quote in the article taken from a company in canada saying they want to get females involved in sports, but it only points towards the stereotypical norms and not pushing any boundaries ie take to the pools and the risks suggesting swimming and skating rather than rugby and boxing.
I found that the number of events for men and women will still disproportionately favour the men by a significant margin with the women only events and also the men only events reflect persistent biases regarding to each gender.
I find it hard to say the article is credible it is straight from the internet, the author is Kerry Flanagan, but i can't find who she is, this could mean it’s anybody, there is very little reference throughout the article so unfortunately in saying it’s not a reliable source.
My second article is a journal that i found by using NELSON (northampton electronic libray search online) I searched using my parameters of genders of gender in sport, i narrowed my search results by setting certain criteria like date of journal and peer reviewed writing the journal is called “who killed schoolgirl cricket ? The women’s cricket association and the death of an opportunity, 1945-1960” i chose this piece as it shows why certain sports especially cricket were not introduced to females in schools highlighting the poor attitudes of teachers and local authorities being one of the key reasons.
The journal starts by showing a decline during the 1970s in womens cricket stating that it is “DYING” with only 66 clubs affiliated to the governing body of the sport in 1970 compared with 200 clubs in 1955 this was brought about by the (WCA) women’s cricket association not trying to revitalise the game with younger members after the war, with just 46 affiliated schools.
The journal refers to cricket being different to typical male sports as it is non contact and not overly aggressive unlike football and rugby. Infact cricket was seen as elegant and grateful very “Feminine” and not “Masculine”, so why did cricket not have an impact with working class girls? it is suggested that girls simply didn’t like the sport, but i think there are some more defunded underlying factors.
Again, like my first article, this journal looks at the lack of funding for girls and boys in education, but the boys would receive more equipment and better facilities than the girls would even at school this was shown by the fact that both rounders and netball were mainly prioritised for girls as equipment was cheap and location or facilities were easy to find anywhere.
Another main reason for the decline in girls participation of cricket was the attitudes of individual teachers and the local education authorities (LEA) were crucial in what happened during P.E not a favoured sport for girls with the P.E inspectorate implying that there was no point spending money cricket; girls were only interested certain games and cricket was not one of them.
I have decided to take two quotes from this journal the first stating, why girls do not want to play cricket according to a P.E inspectorate.
“Interested in field games is certainly not as strong as it used to be, and saturday matches are becoming more and more unpopular with girls who live in a society which has ‘saturdays off’. Tennis and badminton are very popular and very fashionable. (NICHOLSON, R, 2012)
The second quote is in direct response to the first quote because their is an apparent untapped market of interest in the sport.
“The core of my correspondence… is made up of letters from schoolgirls or youngsters just out of school who wish to play cricket. Some not even that they are just ‘keen’ to play englands national summer game.
The journal concludes by a quote taken from a 17 year old schoolgirl who won an MCC competition in 1951. ‘why i love cricket’
“Cricket is a rich and virile, and has, even in restraint a later strength which may leap excitingly at the moment the game seems dullest. In the flash of white flannels against the gleaming grass is the honesty, the remembrance of it brings to await the spring (Maden.c 1951)
This journal is a good solid piece, it is a peered reviewed journal with a massive reference list the other the author is Rafaelle Nicholson who has a PHD and has been studying the history of women’s cricket since 1945. I have beleived this is a very creditable piece from a reliable source.
My final article for this assignment is a piece taken from seminar 8b on Nile and the article is called: Soccer, women, sexual liberation: kicking off a new era.
The article looks at the rise of women in soccor.

To start with i have used a small quote that starts the artical.
“The future is feminine” (BLATTER, J 1995)
I chose this because it’s a strong statement to start with suggesting that women in football is going to see major growth, yet we are now in 2014 and womens soccer is still rarely talked about with most fans not being able to name any female players.
Despite my feelings womens football is still regarded as one of the fastest growing sports in england, with the female football player being a part of social and cultural history of britain for over a century with around 150 women’s teams by 1921 playing regular well attended games. Unfortunatly the english F.A found this to be a threat to the idea of football being a man’s game. So they imposed a ban on 5 december 1921 and lasted until 29th november 1971.
The article like both the other pieces ive looked at highlight, funding and facilities to be an issue, the ban that was enforced in 1921 had a huge impact on the women’s games.
Since the 1960’s large crowds and media interests were a growing part of the women’s game with participation rates being considerably high but since the 1980’s the women’s english national team has gradually because less successful and other countries have progressively overtaken them on the international stage this in its own right has not helped the image of womens football, with the social taboos around female participation remain extremely strong.
Ironically with the men’s england team winning the 1966 world cup created catalyst for a dramatic renaissance in the women’s game and this time the upsurge in interest would be sustained it was a major agent for most women players.
The WUSA (women’s united soccer association) and the united states collegiate are the best option for young talented british women players Italy and Japan are also developing their long established professional women’s league.
From 1969 participation in women's football grew rapidly until 1985 after which funding again because a problem due to the WFA as a governing body under forecasting it’s bid for grant aid this causing a decline in female participation this was shown by the disbandment of the international youth side it was not until 1997 that this was established again.
It was in 1992 that can be said to be the end of 23 years of WFA control before the FA finally took over started to promote it.
To finish i wish to show that the number of women’s football teams since 1969 which was a total of 44 to the year 2000 which has in excess of 700 women teams and 750 girls teams.
This is in my opinion a credible piece of work the author is Dr jean Williams, senior research fellow, international centre for sports history and culture school of humanities, Demontfort university (DMU) leicester which i class as a reliable source.
It’s clear women in sport in many ways is still looked upon as a bad thing, but society is very slowly moving forward, allowing females to participate in sports alot more freely without fear of being ridiculed bibliography.


Coakley, J. J. 1990. Sport in society. St. Louis: Times Mirror/Mosby College Pub
pp. 176 -- 186.
Coakley, J. J. and Pike, E. 2009. Sports in society. London: McGraw-Hill Education pp. 277.
Harris, D, 1987. Sports Psychologist.
Fan, H. and Mangan, J. A. 2004. Soccer, women, sexual liberation. London: F. Cass. pp. 112 -- 127.
Flanagan, K. 2008. Gender Barriers in Sport | Serendip Studio. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 16 Mar 2014].
Nicholson, R. 2012. Who killed schoolgirl cricket? The Women’s Cricket Association and the death of an opportunity, 1945--1960. History of Education, 41 (6), pp. 771--786.

Annotated Bibliography

Flanagan, K. 2008. Gender Barriers in Sport | Serendip Studio. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 16 Mar 2014].
This is an internet article that looked at the issue gender in sport and the barriers faced by both Males and Females. It looks at various reasons for poor participation levels mainly with females in sports, such as Poor funding, Access to equipment and facilities and also homophobia.

Nicholson, R. 2012. Who killed schoolgirl cricket? The Women’s Cricket Association and the death of an opportunity, 1945--1960. History of Education, 41 (6), pp. 771--786.
This article examines the reasons behind the decline of schoolgirl cricket. It considers the impact of the Education Act 1944 and ‘secondary education for all’ on girls’ physical education in general, focusing on why certain sports, in particular cricket, were not widely introduced into the new secondary modern and grammar schools. The outreach programme of the Women’s Cricket Association, the governing body of women’s cricket, to these new schools is considered alongside the problem of equipment and pitch shortages. Ultimately, blame for schoolgirl cricket’s failure to become entrenched within the English education system is placed on the attitudes of teachers and Local Education Authorities towards girls’ cricket at this time; they considered the sport unsuitable for female pupils.

Fan, H. and Mangan, J. A. 2004. Soccer, women, sexual liberation. London: F. Cass.
This is a chapter from a book, which was used during our seminar sessions the chapter looks to offer a fascinating overview of the history of women's football. Looking at various issues through history like, thee 1966 world cup, funding problems and issues caused by governing bodies within the sport.
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