1) End-Host-Based Solutions: These types of solutions are implemented on the end-hosts; the aim of these solutions is to allow the end-hosts to detect the spoofed packets. These kinds of solutions do not require any change in the network infrastructure and they are the easiest in deployment, but they are acting too late because the spoofed packets will arrived to the end-host before they are recognized.
2) Router-Based Solutions: These types of solutions are applied by routers, either at the core and edge of the Internet or at each side separately. These solutions in general face more difficulties to implemented, but they are the most effective because they stop spoofed packets from even reach end-hosts. Routers may apply some reactive mechanisms like tracing from where a malicious packet is arrived. However, routers may not be perfect for the scalable attacks .
3) Solutions Requiring the Use of Both Routers and End-Hosts: In order for these solutions to work routers and end-hosts must work together. A clear difference between host-based and router-based mechanisms refers to the end-to-end argument. Host-based mechanisms obviously relate to end-to-end principles while router-based mechanisms do not. This makes the deployment of host-based mechanisms to be much easier than router-base solutions. Host based solutions in general can be deployed even on a single host, without the need of any other host or router. Table 1 overviews different spoofing defense mechanisms.
D. IP Security
IPSec is mandated in the IPv6 protocol. Every implementation claiming support for IPv6 is expected to provide IPSec as part of the protocol . IPSec is ori...
... middle of paper ...
 Saini, D. K., Maskari, S. A., Saini, H. 2011. Malicious objects trafficking in the network. International Conference on Digital Content, Multimedia Technology and its Application.4-69.
 Radwan, A. M. 2005. Using IPSec in IPv6 Security. In Proceeding of The 4th International Multiconference on Computer Science and Information Technology.471-474.
 Kizza, J. M. 2005. Computer Network Security. USA,Springer.
 Black, U. D. 2000. Internet Security Protocols: protecting IP traffic. USA,Prentice
 Ahmed, A.S. Hassan, R. and Ali, Z.M. 2012. Eliminate spoofing threat in IPv6 tunnel. International Conference of Information Science and Digital Contents Technology, vol. 1, pp. 218-222.
 Rosilah Hassan, Amjed Sid Ahmed, "Avoiding Spoofing Threat in IPv6 Tunnel by Enhancing IPSec", IJACT Journal, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 1241 ~ 1250, 2013.
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