Spinal Cord Injury As A Disconnection Syndrome Essay

Spinal Cord Injury As A Disconnection Syndrome Essay

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Spinal cord injury is described as a disconnection syndrome in which descending motor fibers from the motor cortex to the spinal motor neurons, and the ascending somato-sensory fibers from the spinal cord to the brain. Spinal cord injuries can disrupt communications between the brain and the body. [3][6]
Spinal cord Injury is one of the most catastrophic injuries of the nervous system resulting in permanent neurological deficit. Mainly Spinal cord injury occurs in young and healthy adults as a result of trauma. There are approximately 11,000 new cases each year in the United States. The average yearly health care and living expenses of spinal cord injury patient is estimated to be between USD 1.0 and 2.9 million per person.[3] In 2010, 36.5% of SCI resulted from motor vehicle accidents, 28.5% from falls, 14% from violence (including gunshot wounds), 9% from sports accidents, and 11% from other incidences not reported in detail. Traumatic SCI can occur when an excessive load to the spinal column is transmitted (directly or indirectly) to the spinal cord. Damage to the spinal cord begins at the moment of injury, when displaced fragments of bone, disc material, or ligaments typically cause bruises or tears to spinal cord tissue. However, paralysis has been observed with no radiographic evidence of damage to the spinal cord or vertebral column. Regardless of the injury mechanism, SCI involves permanent sensorimotor and autonomic deficits, with long term complications including muscle atrophy and increased risk of cardiovascular disease.[14] There are 3 main categories with a common injury pattern were formed: Type A- Vertebral body compression(due to compression force on vertebra), Type B- anterior and posterior element inj...

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...ovascular Disease risks associated with hyperlipidemia, improve body composition with increased lean mass and decreased fat mass, and improve whole body uptake of insulin stimulated glucose transport in the quadriceps muscle. In addition, there are reports of increased expression of GLUT 4, a muscle/adipose tissue specific glucose transport protein, and decreased platelet aggregation. [8]
The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of therapeutic applications of Functional electrical stimulation to the person with thoracic and below thoracic level Spinal cord injury for providing functional coordination of muscle contraction and restoring function to paralyzed muscles and make them to show that they are being able to stand and walk are important priorities, along with being more independent and not relying on caregivers and attendants for assistance.

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