Sovereignty

Sovereignty

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SOVEREIGNTY

Sovereignty first was highlighted in the writings of Mathews Hobbs (England 17th century) which was based on the writings of Jeams Bodin (France 16th century). Both Jeams Bodin and Mathews Hobbs were living in the era of conflicts. In England power was divided between King and Parliament and both were striving for maximum power. Similarly in France there were religious conflicts.
==► Both defined SOVEREIGNTY as the state would be sovereign state if it has Autonomy and Independence i.e. (decision taking power, no external interference, and supreme authority).
A Sovereign state must establish a legitimate single hierarchy of domestic authorities. And subjects (citizens) of state have no right to revolt.
According to Jeams Bodin and Mathews Hobbs Sovereignty has two main functions:
1) Establishment of domestic authorities.
2) Justice must be provided.
==►In Contemporary World OR Present Era SOVEREIGNTY is linked to:
1) States must be autonomous and independent.
2) Within the boundaries of a state peoples are free to chose there own form of government.
3) One state does not have the right to intervene in to the internal affairs of another state.
4) There must not be an illegal trans border movement between two states.
5) Each state can enter into an international agreement freely.
==►Main Attraction of SOVEREIGNTY:
1) International recognition.
2) International agreements OR vote in international organizations.
3) Channel to international finance.
4) A status of local leadership is recognized around the world.
CHALLENGES TO SOVEREIGNTY:
A) Universal Human Rights: Which begun as a Religious Tolerance and lead to Minority Rights and then ultimately to Human Rights. International organizations are trying to bring nations to agreements. To implement Human Rights in there respective countries,these agreements are:
a) Volunteer.
b) Conditional.
c) Forced.
After World War 1 some pacts were made in League of Nations A Beuro of Minority Rights was formed to protect the rights of minorities. Then after the demise of League of Nations. United Nations was formed which has passed 20 plus resolutions in last fifty years on Human Rights and Main Essences of These Accords Are:
1) Slavery.
2) Forced Labour.
3) Women rights.
4) Children Rights.
5) Emigrants Rights.
6) Genocide & Torture.
7) Refuges.
8) State less Peoples.
9) Racial Discrimination.
10) Forced Labour.
11) Forced Expulsion from a State.
There are two main shortcomings in timely identification of above rights which are:
==►Lack of proper implementation of these accords.
==►If there is a violation there is no proper reporting (or ineffective reporting) media runs the anti state campaign. Example, Tragic and bloody disintegration of Yugoslavia.

B) Globalization: State control is violated; states can’t for-grant a control. Movement of goods & services are very much there (i.

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e. ideas, capital, professionals, etc). As technology has improved over last two hundred years.
==►As the flow of people, goods, and capital has increased due to improvement in technology.
==►So has the governments control improved.
There are three forms of cross border movement i.e.
i Movement of Ideas: International Media effects on local politics. It is also known as “CNN effect”. In the older days print media was stronger then electronic media. As in the example of Marten Luther king’s idea he just nailed his ideas on the door of church and those ideas spread in whole Europe & North America in just ten years. Because of print media.
ii Capital: As international organizations effect local markets like in the Asian financial crisis. ==► but now nations are more equipped to avoid such crisis. As they have there own monetary policy (Like Pakistan State Bank evolves its monetary policy in case of Pakistan).
iii Goods & Services: in the form of MNC’s

C) NGO’s: NGO’s also threaten the Sovereignty of a state. ==► If the NGO’s are locally prohibited they move abroad & there main focus is on (Child Labour, Gender Issues, etc) ==► Then there are some other NGO’s which focus on the Socio, Economic, and Political issues.

D) MNC’s OR Trans National Corporations: Similarly MNC’s have there own set agenda according to which they work and some time challenge the sovereignty of a state.
There are some issues which are out of bound of the State’s control
which constitutes of :
1. Religion:
2. Monetary Policy: As International Monetary Policy has an effect on local Policies.
3. Loyalty-Citizenship: (Dual Citizenship) The concept of loyalty is changing over time as illegal emigrants have there own rights.
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