Moreover, Xenophobia is defined by most dictionaries as “the fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is different or foreign” (Dictionary.com, n.d.). In South Africa, it is understood to be as the often violent dislike of foreigners, the “makwerekwere”. Likewise, Black foreigners in South Africa have often been referred to as “amakwerekwere” or “amagrigamba” these terms ...
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...lone, he exemplifies that this process of exclusion is a political process whereby the state plays a key role, and only politically marginalised groups are being excluded. On the other hand, Paul Boateng, Commissioner for the United Kingdom, raises up a question onto the issue of citizenship. He questions, “how does South African Nationalism, which has been promoted after a period of racial segregation, i.e., apartheid to create solidarity in a fractured society, ensure that it is open to the diversity of peoples origin who will continue to be attracted to South Africa”? ( Recognizing Xenophobia? Citizen Attitudes to Immigration and Refugee Policy in Southern Africa, 2004). Furthermore, he claims that the dilemma of exclusive citizenship might have risen as a result of nationalism. As a result, it has created both inclusive and exclusive political communities.
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