South Africa has a unique form of federal parliamentary system of government in which unlike the case in most parliamentary systems where there are two national leaders, one as head of state and the other as head of government, the president in South Africa doubles as both the head of state and government. Under its constitution, the president and ministers of state appointed by him constitute the executive with the president as head. The president as head of the executive is technically a member of the legislature even though he loses his seat in the House after being elected president by the House, and he under section 90 of the constitution appoints the deputy president and cabinet ministers all form the legislature (South Africa constitution, art. 90). This makes some members of the executive assume both legislative and executive powers just like the case in Ghana. However, unlike in Ghana, cabinet ministers in South Africa are collectively and individually responsible to the legislature (art. 90).
Since the end of Apartheid in 1994, the governing African National Congre...
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...cal goods” (Shechtel, 2010), the implementation of national statues, human right protection as well as the government fulfilling its part of the social contract with the citizens. If a government does not listen to and respond to the expectations of the citizens, even though the political process allows for popular citizens participation that political system cannot be said to be fully democratic. Thus in Ghana and South Africa where there is a vast injustice, social and economic inequality, excessive government control and systemic legal limitations on the legislature that makes it weak to represent constituents, it would be plausible to draw a conclusion that substantively is lacking in these two countries. It is further plausible to argue that this situation is especially in Ghana is not caused by Ghana’s many years of involvement with International Monetary Fund.
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