Socrates gives the idea that the premise of individuals getting justice and happiness is they live in a justice city. In a city, there are four virtues: moderation, courage, wisdom and justice. According to first three virtues, people are divided into three types: workers with moderation, guardians with courage and auxiliaries with wisdom. Justice is the most important virtue and represents the unanimity of three virtues (Plato 268-288). When Socrates goes back to individual’s justice, he further divides an individual’s psyche into three parts: appetitive, rational, and spirited. A person with a rational psyche shows wisdom and is suited as a ruler. A person with an appetitive psyche shows moderation and is fit as a worker. A person with a spirited psyche shows courage and is fit as a guardian. Finally, Socrates concludes the justice of a country is that different types of people from different classes do the own job and fulfill own responsibility without meddling others (298-311).
However, this justice is not what everybody wants. The first reason is Socrates’ justice is built on a class system for a country in which everybody is stuck at his or her own spot. This justice does not show the relationship with individuals’ happiness. As long as the ruler rules and workers work, the country is just. The justice of a city requires each individual to keep doing his or her own thing, so he or she will forever stay in one status. Any one class can not override the obligation and the occupat...
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... accuse their own ill-luck and not the rulers (Plato 345)”. If the way a city forms is unjust, is this city itself still just?
Socrates’ understanding of justice shows that he does not truly know what justice is. His theory of justice advocates the inequality between people and sacrifices the ruled’s some rights and freedom to build a republic. Based on the eugenics and the class system, the city Socrates graphs is like a manufacuring line where different people are “designed”, “produced” and then assigened to their classes in which they get stuck forever. Thus, this whole city is static and fixed. This justice impedes the city to improve and move forward. Also, people’s development in the republic is only for the ruling class, not everybody in a country like workers. The ruled class is only responsible for production and labor, so they don’t get any development.
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