Social Constructivism (SC)

Social Constructivism (SC)

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Kundi and Nawaz (2010) defined social constructivism (SC) as “collective learning” through wireless computing in which the stakeholders clarifies individual conceptions and maintains shared understanding between teachers-students and peer-peer (Kundi & Nawaz, 2010; Weston & Bain, 2010). Dewey (1916/1997), Papert (1993/2000), Piaget (1932/1997), and Vygotsky (1978/1981) described SC as an alternative approach to promote the process of learning through constructing meaning while acquiring knowledge, instead of memorizing the introduced concepts (Kundi & Nawaz, 2010). Globally the possibility exits through meaning and reality by constructing knowledge, rather than discovery (Gultepe, Yeldirim & Sinan, 2008; Ryu & Parsons, 2009; Kundi & Nawaz, 2010). Furthermore, Bruner’s (1986) theory of SC articulates that the central concerns of educating learners need to focus on how to construct appreciation in the minds of learners.

As Bruner (1986) augured, SC is tailored on acquiring the knowledge that derives from the art of building alternative meanings. Social constructivism (SC) also suggests that teaching and learning with wireless technology resources enables individuals to fine-tune their relations (Weston & Bain, 2010). Through social interaction while re-establishing reality, to restructure the art of learning relations is established. Studies have confirmed that the SC theory enhances individualized skills, abilities and learning inclinations that could have an impact for more technology literacy (Tuckova & Tucek, 2010) within the K–12 curriculum.

Current researchers agreed that historically the social constructivism (SC) approach to teaching is more successful than traditional teaching (Cetindamar, Phaal, & Probert, 2009; Ryu, Parsons, Li, Sheng & Javed, 2009; Kundi & Nawaz, 2010).

For example, traditional lecture has faced scrutiny as not actively engaging students in the subject matter (Ryu, Parsons, Li, Sheng & Javed, 2009). While technology literacy offers ways for teachers to actively engaging students and nurture the constructive utilization of communication resources in the classroom, an innovative societal of experiences is growing for students (Johnson, Levine, Smith, & Smythe, 2009). However, a lack of adequate training for teachers with the quality of technology literacy that offers students a social constructivism (SC) learning atmosphere equipped with new technologies (Uyangör & Karaca, 2010) are not provided in many school districts.

Teacher training and input in their personal view points on technology integration professional learning experiences are essential for constructive changes (So & Kim, 2009). Teacher personal view points in a social constructivism (SC) theory can create opportunities to provide hands-on learning and enables students to access electronic books, study, review, research or explore through SC concept (Zucker & King, 2009).

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Researchers such as Ally (2008) explained that SC theory can be employed to teach the higher order thinking skills, which stimulate learners to assume an active role in the learning process (Piaget, 1932/1997; Strasser, 2006; Marcisz & Woien, 2010). As an example, this approach is about understanding new ideas and approaches by building those ideas upon prior knowledge (Tezci, 2010).

Ryu, Parsons, Li, Sheng & Javed (2009) found that the antidote to learning, requires referencing prior knowledge to recent experiences, referencing different situations to similar, past situations, and then incorporating what one has learned to the past foundation. Teachers can use an alternative instructional method by applying a set of approaches and strategies to create a learning setting which, allows students to negotiate meaning through learning by doing to facilitate wireless computing within the classroom Woo and Lim (2009). In other words, according the theory of SC, the use of past foundations added to modern information can create new ways for teachers to present more knowledge (Ryu, Parsons, Li, Sheng & Javed, 2009; Dewey, 1916; Bruner, 1966; Piaget, 1973).

A foundation upon which to build needs to be established first to construct planned activities (Kundi & Nawaz, 2010). The social constructivism (SC) approach makes it possible for teachers to meet online, share ideas, prepare lesson plans and activities using different software packages (Moses, Khambari, & Luan, 2008). According to Dewey (1916/1997), Papert (1993/2000), Piaget (1932/1997), and Vygotsky (1978/1981), the SC theory suggests that the teacher guides the learner during the learning process rather than instructing through traditional lecturers. Wellings and Levine (2009) established that technology literacy in the instructional setting increases rigor and reinforces learning in a SC way.

Consequently, both business and political leaders have advocated the need for technology literacy. According to Davis, Hartshorne and Ring (2010) in this global economy the knowledge of technology literacy can present students with the needed skills to compete and function in the age of a millennium nation. To prepare students to function in the age of a millennium nation, Wellings and Levine (2009) recommended the following elements to use technology effectively in the instructional setting: Redesign the current curriculum aligned to state standards, practice drills and apply problem based learning. Provide active settings through wireless laptops to promote active collaboration with developing solutions to situations which connect to past and newly developed knowledge. Train teachers to teach students to use interactive concept maps, visualization simulation software, and digital presentations to facilitate the demands of diverse learning styles.

More importantly, to meet the demands of diverse learning styles, differentiate instructional practices through interactive software, games, and evaluate students' task. Wellings and Levine (2009) suggested that teachers evaluate students’ tasks performance in an innovative peer community. They propose that teachers apply the following approaches when integrating technology: review and share student tasks with fellow teachers using web-base educational sites globally. Utilize professional learning networks supported by Nig, Twitter, Education World, Moodle, Facebook, Google, and the Apple Learning.

A professional learning network enables teachers to interchange resources and models through adopting successful strategies to promote teacher on-line collaboration. Furthermore, a setting must be developed for suitable and receptive learning where students construct meaning by linking their existing skills to acquired skills (Wellings & Levine, 2009). The researchers recommended that teachers need to be trained to teach students to use interactive concept maps, visualization simulation software, and digital presentations. They also suggested conducting training sessions to prepare for state mandated assessments by differentiate instructional practices through interactive software, games and activities (Wellings & Levine, 2009). Therefore, differentiating instructional practices effectively demands a change of attitude of reluctant teachers to accept technology usage in their instructional practices (Su Luan & Teo, 2009).
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