Social Change And Its Effect On Society Essay

Social Change And Its Effect On Society Essay

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Horticultural society emerged around the Neolithic period from about 8000 to 3000 BC after hunter-gatherers began to domesticate animals and cultivate plants. Some theories speculate that the transition from hunting and gathering society to horticultural society was forced upon people. The leading causes to this theory include the growth in human population and a change in climate over hundreds of years. A time had come for the people to seek a new reliable, which lead to the domestication of plants and animals. Some major factors that influenced the need to change include environmental change, population growth, and a growth in development of technology that formed the basis of horticultural society. Environmental change describes the change in climate around the time period that altered the behavior of animals and plants as well as reduced the number of large game animals, a major food resource for hunting and gathering societies that was no longer as easily obtainable as before. A population growth created a higher demand for resources within hunting and gathering societies, and with the loss of large game animals the competition grew fierce among groups for resources leading some to search for a new source of food outside of hunting. The need for new resources developed into new tools for resources as materials for hunting and gathering bows and spears were used to create tools specialized for plant cultivation. Animals become more valuable as time continued and herding them into one area for a group’s exclusive use seemed to be an acceptable solution along with the reliability of plants for sustenance. These three factors came together and progressed hunting and gathering societies into horticultural societies gradually as p...


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... factor in war and made war more tempting for those in possession of copper, bronze, and iron. Wealth becomes redistributed as resources are traded and won in battle creating a social system based on those with wealth are put in power and control those without creating a higher incidence in slavery for advanced horticultural societies over simple. Gender role becomes important in political affairs as society becomes more matrilineal where men are in power and women are influential; however, gender role otherwise remains the same in all other aspects where men hunt and inherit land and women take care of everything else. Gender role remains the same in simple and advanced horticultural societies but differ in most other social characteristics brought about by metallurgy discovered by advanced society, creating a technological gap between the two respective societies.

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