The Disability Monitor Initiative (2004) defines institutionalisation as a term used to “describe the living arrangements and conditions of people with mental disabilities that were housed in large, state-run institutions” (p. 36). The Poor Law Act of 1601, developed a welfare system that cared for the disabled, sick and the poor; short stay institutional relief was present in the form of “poor-houses or the almshouses” (Fraser, 2003, p. ...
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...d be said, that the majority of people did not need to be in residential care; they could have quite easily been looked after in their own homes. Furthermore, local authorities found it more cost effective to transfer social care funding by offsetting funds to the social security budget rather than using care in the community (Baldock et al, 2013).
The NHS and Community Care Act 1990 endeavoured to save public spending on the care sector. Social workers became care assessors, assessing individual care needs; the emphasis was now on need rather than finances (Blakemore & Warwick-Booth, 2013). People now had their own care package, explaining the level of care that suited their individual needs; for instance, an individual may only need four hours care a day, finances would be allocated for that four hours rather than wasting funds on full time residential care.
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