The Chinese were the first to start using vaccines back in 1000AD against smallpox and were followed in Africa and Turkey with similar techniques. The first vaccine in the United States was in 1721 by Cotton Mather, a Puritan minister. He used a smallpox vaccination in response to an outbreak. Edward Jenner, an English physician and scientist, created the first smallpox vaccine using cowpox in 1796 and this vaccine was used for years being updated and eventually smallpox was eliminated. Benjamin Waterhouse, a physician and co-founder and President of Harvard Medical School, used the “Cowpox” vaccine in 1801. Massachusetts was then the first state to encourage using the vaccination. Milton, Massachusetts, became the first town to offer free smallpox vaccinations in 1809 and followed the state law requiring the smallpox vaccine (ProCon.org,2015).
President James Madison signed an Act to Encourage Vaccination, which created the National Vaccine Agency on February 27, 1813. By 1963, 20 states required immunizations to attend public schools and by 1970, 29 states required it. Starting with Massachusetts in 1855, New York in 1862, Connecticut in 1872, Indiana in 1881, Arkansas, Illinois, Virginia, and Wisconsin in 1882, California in 1888, Iowa in 1889 and Pennsylvania in 1895 (ProCon.org,2015).
The first laboratory vaccine was developed by Louis Pasteur, a French chemist and microbiologist, and was given for avian cholera (commonly infects chickens) in 1879. He also created the rabies vaccine in 1885 which began the vaccine development for human illnesses starting with typhoid in 1899, cholera in 1911, diphtheria in 1914, tuberculosis in 1921, and
tetanus in 1924. Polio was in 1955, measles in 1963, mumps...
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...thout. Thimerosal is a mercury-based preservative used to prevent contamination of multidose vials of vaccines has been studied. Currently the only vaccine containing thimerosal is the flu vaccine (CDC,2015).
Nursing plays a role when it comes to vaccinating especially in education. It is part of the nurse’s job to educate the patient and families on the vaccination as well as the disease and prevention. When it comes to autism and vaccines, nurse’s try to remind the parents and patients there is no relationship found linking vaccines and autism. It is still encouraged in all healthcare, workers should be vaccinated as well as educated on the vaccines. Patient-nurse relationships make it easier for the vaccines to be given especially in elderly. Experts say nurses are close to being the best healthcare tool in fighting against diseases with vaccines (Zimlich,2014).
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