The six major processes involved in gastrointestinal activity include: ingestion (substance enter the oral cavity of the digestive track), mechanical processing (mastication consist of chewing/breaking down the substance and peristalsis consisting of involuntary contraction that assist the movement of food through the esophagus and intestinal tracts), digestion (chemical break down of substance into smaller fragments appropriate in absorption via the digestive epithelium), secretion (releasing of acids, buffers, water, enzymes, and salts from the glandular organs and epithelium of the digestive tract), absorption (moving water, vitamins, electrolytes, and organic molecules across he digestive epithelium to the interstitial fluid of the digestive tract), and excretion (removal of wastes from the body done by the glandular organs and digestive tract discharging wastes by secretion that enters the lumen of the tract a process known as defecation an elimination of feces) (Martini Nath and Bartholomew, p.882, 2014)
What role do hormones play in hunger and satiety?
There are two important hormones, which regulate hunger and satiety cells are leptin and ghrelin. Ghrelin is created by the stomach and is known, as a peptide released endocrine cells commonly found with in the stomach’s lining. Ghrelin is responsible in sending a message to the brain activating the hunger meanwhile deactivating the satiety cell. It counteracts leptin to increase metabolic efficiency to stimulate a person’s appetite. When your stomach begins to growl it is producing ghrelin. However, the other hormone coming from fat cells are responsible in creating leptin, which acts as a...
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...ing the underlying tissue layers from gastric juice by joining together with tight junctions. If epithelial cells are shed they are replaced quickly through the process of cell division. The stomach also protects itself from HCI with the help of the help of the mucus membrane (a thick layer found at the inner aspect of the stomach) and the viscid mucous from gastric mucosa mechanically the corrosive effect of foods (BBC, 2016).
Identify three ways the small intestine is modified to increase the surface area for digestion and absorption.
The three ways the small intestine is modified to increase the surface area for digestion and absorption consist of: intestinal mucosa containg folds of Kerckring (longitudinal folds/ plicae circulares), intestinal mucosa containg many villi, and epithelial cells lining the villus containing microvilli (News Medical, 2016).
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