Similarities between a Plant and Animal Cell

Similarities between a Plant and Animal Cell

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What is a cell? According to Genetic Home Reference, “Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things.” There are two main branches in which a cell can be categorized. These branches are prokaryote and eukaryote. In the prokaryote category are bacteria; in the eukaryote category are plants and animals. Although plant and animal cells have a lot of differences, they also have their fair share of similarities. For instance, an animal cell has a centrosome, but so does a plant cell.
An average animal cell is made up of centrioles, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER and rough ER), golgi complex, lyosomes, microtubules, mitochondria, nucleus, nucleolus, necleaopore, and ribosomes. Centrioles in an animal cell are made to organize microtubules during mitosis (cell division) stage. Cytoplasm helps move stuff around in the cell and also dissolves cellular waste. The rough endoplasmic reticulum makes membranes and fluid-like protiens. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum has many jobs such as carbohydrate and lipid synthesis. Next is the golgi complex, which is responsible for making, storing, and sending certain cellular products. Lysosomes have the job of breaking down cellular macromolecules. Microtubules have the main job of helping support and shape the cell. Mitochondria are what I like to call 'power houses’; they are the power producers in an animal cell. After the mitochondria is the nucleus, which according to Regina Bailey, “Contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction.” Inside of the nucleus is the nucleolus that helps in the synthesis of ribosomes. The nucleopore allows nucleic acids and proteins to move about freely. Last but not least are the ribosomes. Ribosomes are responsible for collecting the proteins in the cell.
An average plant cell consists of a cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplasts, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER and rough ER), golgi complex, microtubules, mitochondria, nucleus, nucleolus, nucleopore, peroxisomes, plasmodesmata, ribosomes, and vacuole. The cell membrane in a plant cell supports the cell and helps maintain the cell’s shape. The cell membrane also can control which substances can go in and out of a cell. The cell wall also protects the cell and gives the cell its shape. Chloroplasts absorb energy from the sunlight. Cytoplasm’s main job is to move around substances inside a cell and dissolves cellular waste. The cytoskeleton of a plant cell is similar to that of a cell wall because the cytoskeleton helps to maintain the cell’s shape and gives support to the cell.

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The smooth ER of a plant cell has a wide range of jobs including carbohydrate and lipid synthesis. The rough ER in a plant cell creates membranes and secretory proteins. The golgi complex in a plant cell is responsible for making, storing, and sending away certain cellular products. Microtubules help support and shape the cell. The mitochondria create energy for the cell. The nucleus keeps track of the hereditary information of a cell. The nucleolus, within the nucleus, helps in ribosome synthesis. The nucleopore within the nuclear membrane allows nucleic acids and proteins to move in and out of the nucleus freely. The peroxisomes create hydrogen peroxide as a left over product; the peroxisomes are also involved in photorespiration. Plasmodesmata allow molecules and signals to pass between individual plant cells. The ribosomes are responsible for the assembly of proteins. Last but not least are the vacuoles, the vacuole is responsible for many things including storage, detoxification, and growth.
Although animals cells are in general smaller than plant cells, plant cells and animal cells have a lot of similarities. Both animal and plants cells have cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough), ribosomes, mitochondria, golgi complex, cell membrane, nucleus, nucleopore, and a nucleolus. Animal and plant cells also have vacuoles, although animal cells have one or numerous small vacuoles and plant cells have one large vacuole.
In conclusion, animal and plant cells have a lot of similarities. Not only are plant and animal cells both eukaryote cell types, but they also share lot of the same kind of organelles.



Works Cited

Bailey, Regina. "Plant Cell." About.com Biology. About.com, n.d. Web. 05 Nov. 2013.

Bailey, Regina. "Animal Cells." About.com Biology. About.com, n.d. Web. 05 Nov. 2013.

"What Is a Cell?" Genetics Home Reference. Genetics Home Reference, 04 Nov. 2013. Web. 05 Nov. 2013.

"Animal Cell vs Plant Cell". Diffen contributors. Diffen LLC, 2013. Web. Tue Nov 05 2013

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