Signs And Symptoms Of Peptic Ulcer Essay

Signs And Symptoms Of Peptic Ulcer Essay

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Signs and Symptoms of Peptic Ulcer
The clinical manifestations of peptic ulcer include a gnawing or burning pain in the middle or upper stomach between meals or at night, bloating, heartburn, nausea or vomiting. The pain with the peptic ulcer is usually located near the midline in the epigastrium near the xiphoid and may radiate to the back or shoulders. The pain occurs in periodicity,which tends to recur at intervals of weeks or months and is relieved by food or antacids. The other major complications of peptic ulcer disease are hemorrhage, perforation and penetration, and gastric outlet obstruction. An erosion of an ulcer into an artery or vein can cause hemorrhage. Acute post hemorrhagic anemia is another complication with the peptic ulcer disease. The evidence of bleeding in peptic ulcer is seen as hematemesis (blood stained vomitus), and as melena (black tarry stools). The episode of acute hemorrhage in peptic ulcer is evidenced by dizziness; thirst; cool, moist skin; the desire to defecate; and the passage of loose, tarry, or red stools, and coffee-ground emesis. The patient can even develop hypovolemic shock in the severe hemorrhagic situations (Grossman & Porth, 2014). The perforation occurs in the peptic ulcer when the ulcer erodes through the walls of the stomach or duodenum. The perforation will result in the GI contents to enter peritoneum, causing peritonitis. The patient might experience pain radiating to the back, severe night distress, and inadequate pain relief from eating foods, or taking antacids. In penetration, the ulcer erodes into the adjacent organs such as pancreas, liver, or biliary tree. The patient will exhibit similar symptoms of perforation with penetration with an increase in ...


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...ications has steadily increased to 35.8% (2010-2011) from 30.6% (2005-2006) (Frellick, 2016). The polypharmacy increases the risk of adverse drug events such as falls, confusion and functional decline in the elderly population. In the elderly population, the adverse reactions may go undetected because symptoms may mimic problems associated with older age such as forgetfulness, weakness, or tremor. These adverse reactions may also be misinterpreted as a medical condition and will lead to the prescription of additional drugs. According to Frellick (2016) the medications that have tremendously increased in the prescription use include; statins (33.8% to 46.2%), antiplatelets (32.8% to 43%), NSAIDs (10.1% to 13.7%), and proton pump inhibitors (15.7% to 18.5%). According to Halezli and Woolley (2013), the risk factors predisposing patients to polypharmacy include havin

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