Sigmund Freud 's Theory Of Psychology Essay

Sigmund Freud 's Theory Of Psychology Essay

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Sigmund Freud can be seen as a leader when it comes to the advancement in this field and is known for being called the father of psychology. From the influence of other psychological theorists, Freud began to develop his own theories and soon came the emergence of psychoanalysis. Individuals such as Alfred Alder and Carl Jung began working with Freud and psychoanalysis. As time went by, Alder and Jung eventually split from Freud, and created their own theoretical orientations – individual psychology (Alder) and analytical psychology (Jung). Though some basic principles within each orientation have stemmed from similar ideas, it is important to note that the three theories are very much three different identities, all created to help individuals make a positive change in their lives.
When it comes to the theory of psychoanalysis, there are important theoretical concepts that must be understood. The concept of human nature focuses on Freud’s emphasis on the influence of biology and of early childhood experiences (Seligman, 2014). He believed that individuals do not have a lot of control over their behaviors. Instead, it is determined or caused by something they do not have control of. This idea leads into the next concept which deals with the personality structure and Freud’s understanding that the personality is made up of three systems: the id, the superego, and the ego. They create a map to help clarify the nature of the personality. It can also help counselors understand areas of strength and difficulty within the personality (Seligman, 2014). The id is the biological component that is present at birth. It is largely unconscious and seeks to pursue pleasure and gratification by wanting what is wants, when it wants it. The sup...


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... cause people to react to the world in certain ways. It also includes archetypes which are unconscious universal energies that result from repeated human experience (Seligman, 2014). The last level, personal unconscious, is unique to each individual and forms over the person’s lifetime and includes thoughts, feelings, and experiences that were forgotten or repressed. Two other concepts analytical psychology consists of are human development and balance and polarity. Jung believed people’s lives are divided in two parts – first half of life (finding one’s way and accomplishing basic tasks) and second half (the whole personality develops and gains a greater access to the unconscious). Moreover, Jung felt life consists of polarities (opposites) and their balance. Individuals are able to self-regulate and govern their energy flow to maintain a balance. (Seligman, 2014).

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