According to anthropologist, Victor Turner, societies offer individuals only mainstream options for behavior, identity, and beliefs. People choose to adopt societal customs, in order to fit in for the benefit that the society provides. (Davidson, 2006.) As men grow up, they are encouraged to adopt gender and conform identities that is consistent with their physical sex, but they may encounter unexpected problems as they take the stereotypical masculinity, entering adulthood. Men are encouraged to internalize those identities due to societal pressure (Beggan and Allison, 2001). Physical identity, gender identity, sexual orientation, and gender ideology are all components of sexual identity. The development of sexual identity is a normal process of exploration among both heterosexuals and sexual minorities. In fact, heterosexual adolescents may share the same experience of questioning their conventional gender ideologies, masculinity and femininity, and struggle as part of the development process with sexual minorities. Unfortunately, there are also negative consequences with the violation of conventional gender ideologies: rejection, discrimination, and violence (Striepe and Tolman 2013).
a. Masculinity & Gender Ideology—
The process of sexual identity development is a common for everyone, which helps to normalized the developmental process one may experience while exploring one’s sexual identity. However the violation of gender ideology might have negative consequences (Striepe and Tolman, 2013). Male gender role conflict, the social construction of masculinity, and the gender social norms encourage men to suppress healthy attitudes and behaviors that are believed to be contradictory to the norm (Harris, 2008...
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... acceptable to people other than themselves (Sheng 2007).
d. Sports & Entertainment Factor
Even though there is a decline in homophobia and sexual prejudice within the institution of sports, many are still unwilling to risk the potential negative consequences of coming out during their sports career (Cavalier 2011). Sports have been considered as an institution where hegemonic masculinity is reproduced and defined. Athletes typically represent the ideology of what it means to be a man. Homophobia in sports occurs in the creation of a cultural silence around gay identity. Indeed, the majority of individuals in sports maintained the heteronormative framework by self-silencing and frequently engaging heterosexual dialogues. However, the self-perpetuate heterosexual hegemony would prevent homosexuality from being seen as compatible with the athleticism (Anderson 2002).
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