The topic of gender differences must understandably be
approached with caution in our modern world. Emotionally
charged and fraught with ideas about political correctness,
gender can be a difficult subject to address, particularly
when discussed in correlation to behavior and social
behavior. Throughout history, many people have strove to
understand what makes men and women different. Until the
modern era, this topic was generally left up to religious
leaders and philosophers to discuss. However, with the
acquisition of more specialized medical knowledge of human
physiology and the advent of anthropology, we now know a
great deal more about gender differences than at any other
point in history. However, many of our questions still
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the physical
aspect of gender differences in humans, otherwise known as
sexual dimorphism, it’s evolutionary history in our
species, and some behavioral and societal trends that are
associated with it. To accomplish this, I will begin by
outlining the anatomical structures that are commonly used
in measuring sexual dimorphism in our species. After
establishing these criteria, I will expand upon the
evolutionary history of sexual dimorphism in humans
beginning with the anthropoids in the Oligocene and ending
with present day trends. I will conclude this paper by
discussing some of the behavioral traits that have been
thought to correlate with differing degrees of sexual
dimorphism and their plausibility.
Anatomical Structures Used to Study Human Sexual Dimorphism
To discuss sexual dimorphism, one must first define
the term. Webster’s Dictionary defines sexual dimorphism
as “the condition in which differences i...
... middle of paper ...
2004 Fossil Hominids. ANT 270 Notes.
1981 Paleoanthropology: Pliocene and Pleistocene
Human Evolution. Paleobiology, 7:3:298-305.
Frayer, David W. and Milford Walpoff
1985 Sexual Dimorphism. Annual Review of
Key, Catherine A.
2000 The Evolution of Human Life History. World
Mitani, J.C. et al
1996 Sexual Dimorphism, the Operational Sex Ratio,
and the Intensity of Male Competition in
Polygamous Primates. The American Naturalist,
Rogers, Alan R. and Arindam Mukherjee
1992 Quantitative Genetics of Sexual Dimorphism in
Human Body Size. Evolution,46:1:226-334.
Wolpoff, Milford H.
1976 Some Aspects of the Evolution of Early Hominid
Sexual Dimorphism. Current Anthropology
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- A Closer Look at Lucy: Sexual Dimorphism and Speciation in Australopithecus In his peer-reviewed article, “Sexing fossils: a boy named Lucy?,” James Shreeve discusses, in detail, a study on sexual dimorphism and possible speciation in Australopithecines in Hadar, Ethiopia, based on the famous A. afarensis specimen, “Lucy.” In the article, “Lucy’s kind takes humanlike turn,” the author addresses sexual dimorphism and speculates on sex-based differences in behaviors in A. afarensis. The two articles have differences and commonalities with each other in content and both present research methods and conclusions on topics including sexual dimorphism, sex-based behaviors, and speciation in Aus... [tags: Anthropology Essays Paleontology Papers]
1308 words (3.7 pages)
- Human Evolution Human Evolution, the biological and cultural development of the species Homo sapiens, or human beings. A large number of fossil bones and teeth have been found at various places throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia. Tools of stone, bone, and wood, as well as fire hearths, campsites, and burials, also have been discovered and excavated. As a result of these discoveries, a picture of human evolution during the past 4 to 5 million years has emerged. Human Physical Traits Humans are classified in the mammalian order Primates; within this order, humans, along with our extinct close ancestors, and our nearest living relatives, the African apes, are sometimes placed together in the... [tags: Biology]
2715 words (7.8 pages)
- While time travel still remains elusive to us, scientists have been able to discover things about our past as a species that were practically inconceivable over 150 years ago when Charles Darwin released his book entitled The Origin of Species. They have especially uncovered many pieces to our still incomplete puzzle over the past 20 years so that we now have a nearly complete idea of how our species Homo sapiens came to be. This story of our history includes dozens of species’ and hundreds of fossils and bones, yet fairly few complete or even partial skeletons.... [tags: Homo Sapiens]
2715 words (7.8 pages)
- The Arboreal Ancestry Recent research has proved to support the hypothesis that one of the hallmarks of human evolution, bipedalism, arose from an arboreal ancestry. As implied, the tree-living ancestor was to have a benefited from a bipedal gait through aided mobility throughout the tree network (Thorpe et. al., 2007). In addition, the use of the upper body in the arboreal ancestor would be helpful in foraging (Stanford 2006). The importance of the arboreal ancestor hypotheses is their relation to the lower body development towards a bipedal posture and gait.... [tags: Arboreal Ancestry, Research, Human Evolution]
1773 words (5.1 pages)
- First, I would like to point out that English is not my native language. But I hope that I’m able to express myself clear enough for you to grasp the meaning. My theory (or idea) is that right now, the human evolution is going in two separate directions: Direction 1: Evolution in the Rich Parts of the World In the rich parts of the world, humans have plenty of access to food, medical treatment, and education. And there is a lot of genetic exchange between populations that were isolated from each other in the past.... [tags: human evolution, nutrition, genetic diversity]
1160 words (3.3 pages)
- According to Darwin and his theory on evolution, organisms are presented with nature’s challenge of environmental change. Those that possess the characteristics of adapting to such challenges are successful in leaving their genes behind and ensuring that their lineage will continue. It is natural selection, where nature can perform tiny to mass sporadic experiments on its organisms, and the results can be interesting from extinction to significant changes within a species. Human beings are no exception to biological evolution.... [tags: Human Evolution, 2015]
1016 words (2.9 pages)
- Evolution is defined as a gradual process in which organisms become better adapted to their environment through gradual changes that occur from generation to generation. Throughout the history of life, the human species has changed to become better suited to the environment. All of the changes have ultimately resulted from mutations, which occur at the gene level. Pathogens such as bacteria or viruses that live inside of our cells have had a major influence upon our evolution (Parks, Panelli & Weinstein, 2003).... [tags: Science / Evolution]
1907 words (5.4 pages)
- For centuries, man has been curious about his origins and the origins of the life surrounding him. Countless explanations have been formulated using “evidence” that “proves” the story to be true. However, in 1859, Charles Darwin published a monumental theory in his book called The Origin of Species. In his book, Darwin outlined his theory of evolution by natural selection (Darwin, 1859). Although complex, this story is extremely useful in explaining the origins and history of life as we know it.... [tags: The Future of Human Evolution]
1016 words (2.9 pages)
- The great and famous Charles Darwin is still remembered today after almost 2 centuries had passed. He was one of the most significant scientists to change how we view this world. Life, as we know it, was changed by Charles Darwin. But I don’t believe that looking at the present will help in any way so I will take back to the past. It is a fact that throughout history people have always believed in some sort of god. Some religions were weak and have come and gone, where others have come and stayed.... [tags: Charles Darwin, evolution, intelligence,]
1190 words (3.4 pages)
- The Human Consciousness, or The Soul In 1838 Charles Darwin wrote in his journal "Man in his arrogance thinks himself a great work worthy the interposition of a deity. More humble and I think truer to consider him created from animals". (Rachels, 1990) Daniel C. Dennett refers to Darwin's theory of evolution as a universal acid, a theory so powerful it seeps through every traditional concept and leaves behind a revolutionized world-view, resulting not only in a fundamental shift in the way in which we perceive ourselves as human beings, but more importantly, in the death of God.... [tags: Anthropology Philosophy Evolution Essays]
1403 words (4 pages)