Sexual aggression among college students has been a popular topic of examination for the past three decades. One of the reasons for the repeated analysis is the fact that sexual aggression remains a common and enduring experience among college students. An early survey on this topic found that 54% of college women reported experiencing some sort of sexual victimization (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). That same year, Muehlenhard and Linton reported that 78% of female college students experienced some sort of sexual coercion and 15% reported experiencing a rape. Studies since then have consistently replicated those findings. Sexual coercion is commonly defined as any method used to obtain sexual contact with an initially unwilling partner, including negotiation and reasoning, guilt or emotional pressure, and the threat or use of physical aggression (Lyndon, White, & Kadlec, 2007).
Given the frequent occurrence of sexual coercion, it is likely that many students accept this behavior as expected and within the boundaries of social norms (Johnson, 1980). One of the few studies to examine perceptions of sexual coercion used written vignettes to examine the impact of initiator gender and type of coercive act on interpretations of the actors and behaviors (Oswald & Russell, 2006). In that study, college students did not rate the target of the sexual coercion as experiencing high levels of victimization, no matter the aggressiveness of the coercive strategy used, nor did they view the influence strategies or the person using them as particularly aggressive. Although the study provides useful information on the perception of sexually coercive...
... middle of paper ...
...ory as a risk factor for sexual harassment among U. S. Army soldiers. Violence and Victims, 13(3), 269-286.
Turchik, J. A., Probst, D. R., Irvin, C. R., Chau, M., & Gidycz, C. A. (2009). Prediction of sexual assault experiences in college women based on rape scripts: A prospective analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(2), 361-366. doi: 10.1037/a0015157
VanZile-Tamsen, C., Testa, M., & Livingston, J. A. (2005). The impact of sexual assault history and relationship context on appraisal of and responses to acquaintance sexual assault risk. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(7), 813-832. doi: 10.1177/0886260505276071
Wolfe, D. A., Scott, K., Reitzel-Jaffe, D., Wekerle, C., Grasley, C., & Straatman, A-L. (2001). Development and validation of the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 13(2), 277-293.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- In every 45 seconds, someone is sexually violated in the United States. Out of every 6 women, one has experienced an attempted rape or complete rape. Lesbians and bisexual women remain at increased risk of sexual victimization compared to heterosexual women. In order for a woman to determine the direction of her life, she must first determine her sexuality. Sexuality is a deep, integral part of any human’s life. This should not be a subject of coercion or debate. The society must recognize that a woman has the right to freely pre-determine her sexuality without oppression and discrimination (Burn, 2004).... [tags: Relationship Issues]
1569 words (4.5 pages)
- An estimated 39 million survivors of childhood sexual abuse exist in America today (Darness2Light, 2009a ). This figure continues to grow daily as perpetrators of this crime continue in this destructive path. The definition of child sexual abuse is the force, coercion, or cajoling of children into sexual activities by a dominant adult or adolescent. Sexual abuse of children includes touching (physical) sexually including: fondling; penetration (vaginal or anal using fingers, foreign objects or offenders organs; oral sex, or non-physical contact including: sexual comments; indecent exposures; masturbating in a child’s presence; child prostitution or child pornography (Child Welfare, 2009a).... [tags: children, sexual abuse, family, argumentative, per]
1679 words (4.8 pages)
- I know they will judge him, but I want someone out there to realize that my brother was scared and did the only thing he knew how to. My brother was just as badly raped and tortured as the other girls he had raped. My father sexually and physically abused my brother. I shared a room with my brother and I know for a fact what my brother had endured growing up. I know my father tied my brother up, beat him with belts, burned him and anything else you can think of that qualifies as torture I'm pretty sure covers it.... [tags: Sexual Abuse, argumentative, persuasive]
2200 words (6.3 pages)
- Sexual violence is the most common violent crime in many countries, where acquaintance violence is dramatically becoming more prevalent than stranger violence. Acquaintance violence is defined as assaults in which “the victim knew one or more of the offenders at least by sight, but not involving partners, ex-partners, household members, and other relatives” (Mattinson, 2001). Child sexual abuse is largely becoming a problem that affects children of all ages, genders, and cultural backgrounds, furthermore most cases are committed by men who were at some point involved in the child’s life.... [tags: sexual violence, posttraumatic symptoms]
1308 words (3.7 pages)
- Sexual abuse on children is becoming more known in the United States as the years go on. The number of reports and children involved in these reports are shocking and disturbing. According to National Child Abuse Statistics (2013), three million reports a year are being reported with six million children involved in these child abuse cases in the United States, with 9.1 percent of those cases being sexual abuse. Children are being sexually abused in one or more ways and the warning signs can help save these children to prevent the after effects of the sexual abuse brought on by their offenders.... [tags: child abuse, United States, behavior, effect]
872 words (2.5 pages)
- It was not until recent that studies would present the impact sexual abuse has had on children. Little is known about adults who have been sexually abused. A sexually abused child has been an unspoken phrase dating as far back as the early 1970s (Finkelhor, 1984). Studies on those children who have been sexually abused are rare, although they are presented at a disproportionate rate to their counterparts. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is based on official statistics which concurs with the preceding statement (Briere & Runtz 1986).... [tags: Child Abuse, Physical Abuse]
829 words (2.4 pages)
- Child abuse, while having many different forms and levels of severity, can be basically defined as the maltreatment of a child by a parent or other adult. When one thinks of child abuse, usually the first thing that comes to mind is physical harm, but the issue is actually much more complex. The abuse of a child can also be manifested in verbal and emotional forms, as well as in sexual molestation. All forms of child abuse generally result in similar emotional disorders and behavioral issues, but the major consequences of sexual abuse, such as mental or emotional scarring, promiscuity, and the tendency of former victims to become sexual abusers, cause it to be the most severely damaging for... [tags: maltreatment, sexual molestation]
1021 words (2.9 pages)
- Overview: As of 2010, 13% of the United States population was 65 years of age or older (National Center on Elder Abuse, 2014). Men and women today are living longer and want to remain in their own homes as long as they possibly can, rather than reside in a nursing home or an assisted living facility. In order for these men and women to remain at home, they need support and resources, as there are a number of different types of abuse against elderly men and women. These types of abuse including physical abuse, verbal/emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and even the rare occasion of sexual abuse that occurs at home.... [tags: Offenders, Vulnerability, Abuse]
1544 words (4.4 pages)
- As reported in Child Maltreatment 2013, out of the estimated 905,000 victims of child abuse and neglect reported in the United States in 2013, 8.8% were victims of sexual abuse. 1 This means that in that year over 79,600 children were sexually abused in the United States. “There is general agreement among mental health and child protection professionals that child sexual abuse is not uncommon and is a serious problem in the United States.” 2 Sexual abuse has a very broad definition. According to the American Psychological Association, “a central characteristic…is the dominant position of an adult that allows him or her to force or coerce a child into sexual activity.” 3 The Child Abuse Pre... [tags: Child Abuse Essays]
1756 words (5 pages)
- Childhood sexual abuse, as defined by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA, 1996), includes using persuasion, enticement, and other inducements to coerce a child to engage in sexually explicit conduct or simulation of sexual acts. Survivors of sexual abuse frequently have a legacy of both psychological and physical problem throughout life. There has been considerable literature published in the past 20 years focusing on the long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse. Survivors cannot be stereotyped.... [tags: Ethical Issues, Sexual Trauma, Depression]
1005 words (2.9 pages)