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Rebecca West (1892-1983) was a prolific writer who tried every literary genre;
journalism, literary critique, the short story and the novel. Her first novel The Return of
the Soldier published in 1918 spans half a century of creative output culminated in 1966
with her last novel The Birds Fall Down. However, all her narrative is easily identifiable
because of her unmistakable style, the structure of her novels, the topics she chooses and
the coherence of her ideas about mankind and society. Subsequently, all her novels are
psychological, historical and social documents depicting human behavior in a precise
historical and social context. West synthesizes what she observes rooting her ideas in
British literary tradition. Her keen critical eye is both penetrating and enlightening, for
example, when in The Return of the Soldier, Margaret Grey appears poorly dressed
daring to invade the Baldry mansion with her mud covered boots, while Jenny, the
narrator, expresses crude feelings of resentment towards Margaret and her social group.
The latter is represented: ‘... as the rich hate the poor, as insect things that will struggle
out of the crannies which are their decent home, and introduce ugliness to the light of
day’ (West, 1918, rpt.1984: 32)1.
West’s literary reputation was revived in the 1980s with the disintegration of
Yugoslavia. Her Black Lamb and Grey Falcon; A Journey through Yugoslavia (1941)
brought her wide critical attention because this novel was the last of her efforts to
understand the pre-war situation. Furthermore, it was central to West’s next book, The
Meaning of Treason (1947), where she concentrated on the psychological characteristics
of traitors and she wondered what caused these people to do what they did—for West,
war fosters deception and betrayal. The final example of West’s interest in treason is her
novel The Birds Fall Down (1966) which concludes with the deaths of both the traitor
and the friend he betrayed and in The Return of the Soldier, a study of the sequels of war
in human mind, the protagonist is betrayed by his family. In the aforementioned novel,
West employs what at the time was an original device, amnesia from war trauma or
‘shell shock’ as well as an unusual perspective on war—that of those who waited at
home. West tries to explore the reactions of three women to a returning soldier who,
though married, remembers only an earlier love for another woman.
In spite of its obvious literary quality, The Return of the Soldier proved to be a
novel severely punished by critics.
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imagination diluted the novel: ‘A failure of the book certainly is ... her imagination that
failed to supply a just and shapely finale’ (Wolfe, 1971: 34-35). I agree with Wolfe that
Rebecca West commits some errors as, for example, unnecessarily extenuating the
description of the afternoon Margaret spends with Chris fifteen years prior to the present
situation. Hence, I also agree that West should have avoided accumulating so many
useless details in the narration because the only thing she achieves is to hinder fluidity in
her novel. Additionally, Freud’s influence is undeniable. In this sense, several critics
have remarked Freud’s influence in The Return of the Soldier, for instance, Wolfe
(1971) defends its clearly Freudian connotations and maintains that it is an error to
blame West’s preference for psychology for the book’s failure: ‘To blame the book's
failure on a … preference for text book psychology is to miss the point’ (Wolfe, 1971:
44). Also, Rollyson (1995: 51) states that West introduced in the novel ‘The Freudian
ideas that had begun to emerge in Rebecca’s literary criticism’. I especially agree with
Ann V. Norton when she shows West’s contradictions between her patriarchal
education and her feminism: ‘As a Freudian ... West looked to mothers and fathers as
the key to a human soul. As a feminist ... she blamed men and the patriarchal structure
of society -or fathers- for human unhappiness’ (2000: 80). Nonetheless, in my opinion,
the book is much more than a case of Freudian analysis—social implications are also
The Return of the Soldier, like many other of her first novels, The Judge (1922),
for example, echoes Henry James's influence, a novelist who West admired greatly and
about whom she wrote a literary essay. The Return of the Soldier follows Jamesian
structure, with its seemingly simple linear narrative though endowed with greater
complexity. The novel is laced with harsh criticism towards her contemporary society.
Baldry Court, the huge estate belonging to the family with the same name, a grandiose,
majestic place, is the symbol of oppression for Chris Baldry. At the same time, Baldry
Court, a Freudian element in the book, is used to show the family’s power and arrogance
more adequately: ‘... the splendid house which was not so much a house as a vast piece
of space partitioned off from the universe and decorated partly for beauty and partly to
make our privacy more insolent’ (145). The Baldrys are the mirror image of members of
a society that live anchored in the past, in imperial grandeur, without realizing that this
social reliquary is about to crumble. In addition, West describes other decaying societies
in several of her novels, as for example in The Fountain Overflows (1956) and The
Birds Fall Down (1966).
The Baldry mansion and its surroundings contrast with Monkey Island, where
Margaret and Chris met fifteen years before. Both of them refer to that place as if it were
not a mere location, but ‘a magic estate’ (102), an eddy of peace, ‘... whose utter
difference was a healing ... in its green silence’ (103). It is not therefore odd that Chris
in the grip of amnesia only remembers Margaret and this symbolic place, Monkey
Island. This is where her father ran a small, quiet inn, frequented by peaceful people,
intellectuals, professors fond of fishing, and married couples still in search of a blissful
atmosphere. This was Chris's refuge far from his paternal mansion. In Monkey Island he
felt that ‘The whole world seemed melting into light’ (79). Baldry Court also contrasts
with his uncle Ambrose’s house, surrounded by the idyllic grasslands ‘where Whiston's
cows are put to graze’ (71), which is another safe harbour for tormented Chris Baldry.
Monkey Island brought pleasing memories to Rebecca West because she had
been happy too at Monkey Island Inn. H. G. Wells also knew the place, when as a boy
he used to visit his uncle at Surly Hall Inn which was only half a mile down the river. It
does not seem that the novel offers any more autobiographical details, with the
exception of this love triangle. The novelist has always denied the similarities between
her life and Margaret’s, always insisting that the character resembled the personality of a
certain Mrs. Vernon, her patroness at Claverton Street.
A Freudian analysis of Chris’s case would probably coincide with Rebecca
West's portrait of Baldry family. This family is presented as an institution that provided
status and comfort to its members, but at the same time it suffocated and crushed their
identities. Chris is only happy when he is far away from that place. Chris uses the gates
of his uncle’s house to run towards the open spaces or to visit Margaret on Monkey
Island in exactly the same way as Jane Eyre seeks Gateshead’s windows to sit down and
read to escape from oppression. That is to say, to escape from the oppressive family
atmosphere and to seek sanity in the spiritual retreat represented by Margaret’s loving
embrace: ‘the woman [Margaret] has gathered the soul of the man into her own soul and
is keeping it warm in love and peace so that his body can rest quiet for a little time’
(144), as Jenny, Chris’s cousin, tells us.
In Chapter VI, we can appreciate the great influence of Freud’s theories—the
emphasis on childhood as a lifetime marker in the development of an individual’s
personality. Dr. Anderson, the psychiatrist, enquires about Chris’s parents, and Jenny
answers ‘His father was old when he was born, and always a little jealous of him’ (167).
Gilbert Anderson does not believe in hypnotism as a therapy, though it is declared in the
book that Chris ‘can remember quite well when he is hypnotized’ (166-167). As it is
well known, hypnotism was used by Freud but he abandoned it after he had elaborated
his theory of the unconscious. Then, the doctor’s words imply a certain criticism when
he refers to hypnotism, ‘It [hypnotism] releases the memory of a dissociated personality
which can’t be related ... to the waking personality. I’ll do it by talking to him. Getting
him to tell his dreams …’ (166). Therefore, he is obviously following Freud’s
techniques and consequently states ‘The mental life that can be controlled by effort isn’t
the mental life that matters … There is a deep self in one, the essential self, that has its
wishes’ (163). However, the solution for the hero’s recovery is not either in hypnotism
or in Freud’s free association theories, but in love, ‘Remind him of the boy’ (169), says
Margaret. Therefore, it is Margaret who solves the problem and not Dr. Anderson.
Furthermore, it seems that Chris has developed a phobic disorder towards his
family during his illness. However, that phobia has always existed and is not only
directed towards his inner circle but towards social hypocrisy as well. Chris apparently
suffered from it before being drafted into the army, and now his condition is exacerbated
by war trauma. Chris maintains his phobia both when living in fantasy and in real life.
Chris is a Freudian example since his behaviour after homecoming from war is rooted in
his early life.
Chris is attractive, rich and apparently possesses all that one needs to be happy
according to social conventions. However, he feels the oppression of his social class and
family. In his youth he escaped from Baldry Court, a symbol of his social status, to
Monkey Island in search of something completely different from what surrounded him
from birth. As an adult, his amnesia helps him to reject everything that he does not want
to remember. Thus, Dr. Anderson explains to Chris’s wife that he wants to erradicate
that part of his life that ties him to the Baldrys because he cannot stand the idea of
belonging to that family, Dr. Anderson says: ‘His unconscious self is refusing to let him
resume his relations with his normal life, and so we get this loss of memory’ (163).
Anderson’s explanation follows Freud’s theories about the role of the unconscious. The
hero’s mental wound is a strategy that isolates him from the rest of the Baldry crowd.
Chris has been able to extract what could have been saved from the chaos of his life and
he wants to preserve it at all costs.
Though Chris is portrayed as a victim of his family, he does not escape Rebecca
West’s criticism. The separation from Margaret occurs because he does not trust the girl
that belongs to a social class different from his, Margaret says: ‘he wasn't trusting me as
he would trust a girl of his own class’ (107). The young Baldry is contaminated by the
conventions and prejudices of his class although he wishes to escape from its trappings.
Chris becomes free only when he loses his memory. Only then is he able to liberate
himself from his phobias against his own family, against the social group his family
represents, and against the characteristics that conform their rigid social rank: pride,
hypocrisy, selfishness, and injustice. His amnesia is therefore selective because in his
memory there remains a place for the world he had shared with Margaret as well as for
that beautiful place where she comes from and which he still seeks fifteen years later.
Margaret appears transformed before his eyes, she is not the stout, badly dressed
woman, impregnated by the smell of cooking cabbage that denotes her social origins, ‘...
she is transfigured in the light of eternity’ (137). However, the rest of the Baldrys do not
undergo that transfiguration because they do not mean anything to Chris.
Upon recuperating freedom thanks to his memory loss, Chris starts to express
himself with bitter sincerity. Still sick in the eyes of his family, Chris Baldry recognizes
his error in marrying Kitty. West creates cousin Frank to exalt Kitty's ridiculous virtues
but very much accepted by social canons of the era: her beauty together with a
wonderful and educated soprano voice, to which Chris adds with abruptness: ‘... I hate
everybody male or female, who sings. O God, I don't like this Kitty’ (46). His family
and his social class weigh him down like a yoke and he confesses to Frank with all
sincerity that he wants to see Margaret Allington. After returning to his house, Chris
lives in the past which is the only thing he strives to retrieve and remember as when he
asks for deceased steward Griffiths. Therefore, all the innovations he finds in the house
become an object of his bitter irony. His amnesia is a triumph over the limitations of
society and over the language that on so many occasions prevents individuals from
manifesting the truth of a thought or real feelings. His love for Margaret is the love
where he experiences a spiritual communion. His attraction to Margaret happens
spontaneously and they cannot control the impetus of that awakening. Love and desire
trap them both, love embraces them and enslaves them—they are living in a magic
According to Rebecca West, marriage is the cradle of isolation. At the very
beginning of the novel, Rebecca West describes Kitty in faithful image of Victorian
cliché: beautiful, innocent, elegant, superfluous, and a seemingly perfect organizer of
her house. The first thing she tells Chris when he returns from war is that she has fixed
dinner and she expects him to be on time, not a minute later, even though she thinks that
Chris suffers ‘concussion’ (29). West writes ironically: ‘She said it very smartly, with
her head on one side like a bird, as if she was pleading that he would find her very
clever about ordering dinner and thinking of his comfort’ (53). Freud’s influence is also
seen in Kitty’s portrait. She is presented as a frigid woman, ‘she looked as cold as
moonlight, as virginity’ (56). Furthermore, Kitty’s depression can be perceived in the
novel, ‘... Kitty lay about like a broken doll, face downward on a sofa, with one limp
arm dangling to the floor’ (125). Kitty’s identity is based on jewels, rings, pearl
necklaces, and diamonds which symbolize both her social class and her lack of
emotions. Moreover, she thinks she can maintain her identity by keeping social
differences, so she is derogatory with all those who do not belong to her world. Kitty
directs her anger towards the servants to the point of making them cry, and she refers to
Margaret as ‘That dowd!’ (65). As expected, she paints herself as a victim in the role of
an offended wife.
So, Kitty represents the typical Victorian woman while Margaret subverts the
role assigned to women. Margaret is strong enough to take care of her father, her
father’s inn, her husband and her ex-lover, Chris. In one way or another, all the men that
appear in her life depend on her and survive thanks to her strength. The contrasts
between Kitty and Margaret are woven into one of the main topics of the novel. Kitty is
introduced as a caricature of a bygone era, whereas Margaret represents a modern
woman. In spite of her ordinary look, poverty, and lack of taste, Margaret is intelligent,
passionate, free, responsible, and possesses an inborn sense of duty and extraordinary
generosity—she is able to forsake her emotions so that Chris can be cured. Nevertheless,
Kitty’s frivolous attitude is manifested on several occasions, especially when she awaits
the doctor's arrival. She greets him splendidly dressed because she wants to capture the
man’s attention and admiration just like a royal peacock, for this is her only mission in
life as a woman.
The antagonism between Kitty and Margaret is also depicted in motherhood.
There is not a speck of maternal love in Kitty, whereas West exalts the maternal figure
in Margaret. She is the perfect mother, she remembers the happy moments with her son,
and even when Margaret is with her lover she projects these maternal feelings.
Nonetheless, there are parallelisms between the two women. Both Kitty and Margaret
had a son, Oliver and Dick, respectively, and both children died early—they were both
two years old. In fact, the novel’s opening sequence takes us to Oliver's room with an
intention to accentuate the differences between two opposite social classes; Margaret
cannot afford the luxury of having two nurseries, while the Baldrys have ‘the day
nursery’ and ‘the night nursery’ (173). Margaret as a mother used to joyfully make
clothes for her little son with her own hands, which is intended to prove that wealth
does not assure happiness. In this way, Rebecca West is trying to insinuate that poor
children live surrounded by love. The rich are not happier than the poor, as it is seen in
the sorrowful example of the novel’s main character.
Another Freudian element appears when West describes Margaret as Chris’s
lover and mother, she also explains to Dr. Anderson that Chris was very dependent on
sex, furthermore Margaret acts as Chris’s protector figure ‘This wonderful kind woman
held his body as safely as she held his soul’ (147), she protects him from his fears and
phobias. She substitutes Chris's mother who is scarcely ever mentioned in the novel.
Chris Baldry’s mother is hardly ever put on stage, so the reader only gains some insights
about her and she always appears in clear contrast to Kitty. For example, Mrs. Baldry
never closed her windows because she liked to see how the night extended ‘like a pool
in the valley’ (55). Again, West alludes to open spaces as a symbol of freedom while
Kitty had them closed the whole day, so that her house seemed like a prison. The
Baldrys' mansion is utterly patriarchal since there is not even a small portrait of Chris's
mother. However, the enlarged picture of Margaret’s mother presides ‘over the
mantelpiece’ (93) at her daughter’s humble house.
Both women are also the lens through which Rebecca West criticizes society and
its institutions, especially the upper classes. Kitty’s superficiality contrasting with
Margaret’s moral superiority can be appreciated in many situations throughout the
novel. It becomes more acute in the final passages of the book when we see Margaret
searching for some object, a garment or a toy that belonged to Oliver in order to help
Chris overcome his illness, while Kitty is presented with devastating irony in the same
scene holding ‘in her arms her Chinese sleeve dog’ (180-181). The Baldrys reject the
lower social classes—the servants do not even have names in the novel, since for Jenny
they are ‘faceless figures with caps and aprons’ (96). Margaret has been judged by such
standards beforehand as well, tragically in accordance with the prejudices established by
the ruling classes. Thus, at the beginning of the novel Kitty accuses Margaret of coming
to bring the news about Chris's illness more for the money than for anything else.
However, Jenny affirms that she would not mind giving her some coins to quell that
Jenny is the only Baldry character who changes as the novel progresses. The
character fulfills its narrative role, but some critics fall short when they consider her just
as a mere narrator. Jenny could well have been another Kitty. In fact, at the beginning of
the novel, all her features are made to resemble dangerously those of her cousin's wife.
However, there is a fundamental difference between the two women: Jenny knows how
to interpret Chris's selective amnesia with discretion and compassion whereas Kitty does
not. Thanks to Margaret and Chris, Jenny grows emotionally and becomes an adult
woman. She comes to realize that true love is an inseparable bond between the lovers
although she feels jealous of Margaret. On the one hand, she is able to recognize that
she has always been in love with her cousin, and on the other hand she learns to respect
and to accept the love that binds them ‘a changeless love which would persist if she
were old or maimed or disfigured’ (78)—not a proper form of love from the social
standpoint, but true to its core in spiritual terms. At the end, she finally realizes that her
cousin's wife, Kitty, has always hated her. Eventually Jenny becomes Margaret’s friend,
she fraternizes with her, and in the last scene they kiss not as friends, but as lovers
because each one is embracing Chris, the part of him that the other one possesses. So
she says: ‘I think we each embraced that part of Chris the other had absorbed by her
love’ (184). Jenny is the only one in the entire family who realizes that her cousin is not
mad, for Jenny considers Chris ‘so much saner than the rest of us’ (134), but the rest of
the Baldry family cannot bear the social disgrace of Chris’s rejection. The features
bestowed on Jenny reappear in West's other novel Harriet Hume: A London Fantasy
(1929)—Harriet is a reminiscence of Jenny, she is witty, intelligent and has flair.
Chris’s amnesia is the instrument by which Rebecca West skillfully exposes the
problems of the Baldry family, apparently united, but with no affection, no
understanding, and no communication among them. That family rejected by Chris
decides that he has ‘to be cured’ at all costs because if he is not cured—he will never be
one of them, he will be an eccentric damaging testimony of their own failures. Thus,
they decide to wrest him from his fantasy in order to bring him back to reality and to put
an end to his happiness. So, he is being treated with ‘cures’ that break his heart, and
Chris returns to his marriage with a terrible smile, ‘... that little stiff-lipped smile’ (185).
The Baldrys deny him the right to happiness for the sake of their own salvation and to
perpetuate their social status. West’s criticism against the family as an institution is
present throughout the entire novel. Rebecca West criticizes the family as a unique cell
of society, usually seen as the institution that saves humanity but at the same time has
the ability to destroy individuals. Thus, the family is a castrator of Chris’s emotional life
and he is only happy when removed from its influence, finding refuge in his amnesia.
Likewise, the Anglican Church does not escape West’s severe criticism. Cousin
Frank Baldry ‘who is in the Church’ (40) receives Chris's telegram begging him to visit
Chris at the hospital in Boulogne. Frank has to inform his cousins Kate and Jenny what
Margaret has already told them. But like them, he is more concerned about the social
drama caused by Chris's illness when he outwardly rejects his lawful wife and declares
that he is in love with Margaret. When Chris admits that his most burning desire is to
hold Margaret in his arms, Frank is terrified by this socially unacceptable situation, and
thus feels a great relief when he sees that Chris faints again. Frank has been introduced
by West with the sole purpose of serving as a platform for her criticism against the
established church. Frank does not reappear in the novel yet the novelist uses him to
criticize not only the institution he represents but also religious beliefs. West’s criticism
against religion is seen in the sentence that little Oliver mispronounces in his prayer,
‘Jesus, tender leopard’ (175) instead of ‘Jesus, tender shepherd’ (175). It shows Jesus
not as a protector of poor souls like a shepherd, but rather aggressive as a feline, which
when freely translated can mean that the divine oppresses, it subdues and destroys both
the individual and the society.
The medical profession does not appear better depicted than the clergy or the
Church in West’s novel. Rebecca West criticizes this by describing hypnotism as ‘a silly
trick’ (166). These methods are formulas to falsify human truth. West’s irony is patent
again in the description of the doctor, who she portrays as a fake. Thus, we learn that Dr.
Gilbert Anderson is a stumpy, fat middle-aged man, blue eyed, with a grey moustache
whose physique resembles that of ‘an amiable cat’ (150). His aspect is almost comical
and he does not project the image of those highly ‘distinguished practitioners’ (150) at
War, even though it is the cause of the main character’s wound, is not submitted
to exhaustive scrutiny by the novelist—it is a vehicle to introduce contemporary society
instead. Though war causes death, physical and psychological wounds, pain and
desolation, West does not pontificate on its causes or consequences. If anything, she
shows what it means for a woman to deal with its horrifying consequences after
traumatized soldiers return home. In this case, war serves as the background for
analysing the lives of three women: Kitty, Margaret and Jenny. They greet Chris on his
arrival although, as we have learned, that homecoming is not experienced equally by
each of them. Only the last two rejoice upon his return even though Jenny’s emotional
outpouring is severely restricted by suffocating social conventions.
Feminist echoes rebound from emotional pathos for the return of the wounded
soldier. A loving woman nurses back to health what society, the interests of the mighty,
and the government have tried to annihilate in the act of war. The novel confirms that
women live in a man-governed world, which is why West thinks women must exercise
political power to have the possibility of deciding instead of just dealing with the duty
of healing war cruelties with their unyielding attention, love, and maternal feelings.
West believed both in the socialist solution and also in feminism. For these reasons she
creates Margaret who belongs to the working class yet she is very superior as a human
being to the other two Baldry women. In fact, because of her beliefs, West had written
for Freewoman and had defended women’s right to vote.
In conclusion, we could say that this novel, apparently so simple, is a great
introspective essay where clever intellectual resources are used to denounce privileged
classes, social institutions, political ideas, and religious creeds. Rebecca West explores
various social conventions, as for example the apparent purity and innocence of the wife
equipped with the moral solvency of the British ruling classes and, in a very unsteady
historical moment, she dares to write about the manners and the behaviour of these
ruling classes who refuse to look beyond the windows of their mansions and wounded
pride. Therefore, love between Chris and Margaret is possible because he is ill. At the
end of the novel, when he is apparently ‘cured’, Chris returns to the reality of his empty
marriage, to the absurdity of war, to the stale family life, and to his own emotional
vacuum. After this seemingly purifying experience he is reinstalled as a respectable
English gentleman: ‘Every inch a soldier’ (188). Chris Baldry gives us a practical
lesson: It is essential to resuscitate the past only when it is worthwhile to remember, the
other irksome experiences are better buried forever.
Change, incoherence, and isolation are some of the characteristics of British
society at the beginning of the twentieth century. No wonder Rebecca West proposes
love as a moral code—as a solution to dignify human behaviour. Margaret makes the
bond of love her behavioural rule, since because of love she takes care of her father, her
husband, and her ex-lover. Also, for the sake of love she renounces every right to Chris.
Margaret does what she believes ought to be done: She always chooses duty and what is
morally right. Not in vain, Rebecca West introduces these moral, social, and even
religious aspects as unalterable values in Margaret’s decision. There are several reasons
for Margaret's participation in the game played by the Baldry family: firstly, because she
loves Chris; secondly, because he is married to Kitty; and, finally, because she is
married too. Lastly, every individual has to accept his/her reality: ‘one must raise to
one's lips the wine of the truth, heedless that it is not sweet like milk but draws the
mouth with its strength, and celebrate communion with reality’ (182). Margaret’s act of
renouncement has many Jamesian connotations: love is contradictory, it causes pleasure
and pain, it can cause as much damage as happiness, and it is a kind of death. However,
all that survives in the novel endures thanks to Margaret’s love.
In a broader sense, the novel is a reconciliation between innocence and human
experience. Chris, the main character, desperately clings to that innocence but finally is
left with no choice but to live with all previous experiences including all his phobias.
Nonetheless, Margaret, the heroine, does not need to dismiss reality for she lives
peacefully in the present and in perfect harmony with the memories of her innocent past.
The novel, a small masterpiece, may lead to conclusions on: how to confront reality,
how to defend truth versus falsity, how to ban hypocrisy, how to recognise true love,
how to defend good versus evil. The novel is a deep, serious, psychological study of its
main characters, especially Chris, not forgetting that human behaviour is also influenced
by social context, rules, and institutions.
1. From now on, only the page number will appear between brackets when referring to
the novel by Rebecca West, 1918, rpt. 1984, The Return of the Soldier, Middlessex:
Glendinning, Victoria. Rebecca West, a Life. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1987.
Norton Ann V. Paradoxical Feminism. The Novels of Rebecca West. Oxford:
International Scholars Publications, 2000.
Rollyson, Carl. Rebecca West, a Saga of the Century. London: Hodder and Stoughton,
Rollyson, Carl. The Literary Legacy of Rebecca West. London: International Scholars
West, Rebecca. Henry James. London: Nisbet, 1916.
West, Rebecca. The Return of the Soldier. 1918, rpt. London: Virago, 1984.
West, Rebecca. The Judge. 1922, rpt. London: Virago, 1980.
West, Rebecca. Harriet Hume: A London Fantasy. London: Hutchinson, 1929.
West, Rebecca. The Fountain Overflows. 1956, rpt. London: Virago, 1984.
West, Rebecca. Black Lamb and Grey Falcon; A Journey through Yugoslavia, 1941,
rpt. Middlessex: Penguin, 1986.
West, Rebecca. The Meaning of Treason, 1947, rpt. London: Virago, 1984.
West, Rebecca. The Birds Fall Down. London: Macmillan, 1966.
Wolfe, Peter. Rebecca West, Artist and Thinker. London and Amsterdam: Illinois
University Press, 1971.