Anything that is symbolical can be categorized under semiotics. Gestures, deliberate cough and gruff may be made symbolical to convey a news or information. Scholars have been interested in the role of signs for many centuries. In fact, the first definition of "sign" was given by 1Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.E.), who treated it as a medical symptom (e.g., sore throat is a symptom of cold, knee pain is a symptom of arthritis). However, it was only towards the end of the nineteenth century that semiotics was developed as a separate field, thanks to the works of Charles Sanders Peirce, an American philosopher, and Ferdinand de Saussure, a Swiss linguist. Semiotics has been the study of sig...
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...ericles (Classical Athens), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the father of Western medicine
2. Eco, Umberto. A Theory of Semiotics. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press/London: Macmillan, 1976.
3. The sign is the whole that results from the association of the signifier with the signified (Saussure 1983, 67; Saussure 1974, 67).
4. Edited by François Victor Tochon, Marcel Danesi, and Linda Rogers. International Journal of Applied Semiotics.
Chandler, Daniel. Semiotics for Beginners. Online Publication, 1999.
2. Niazi, Nazar and Gautam, Rama. How to Study Literature: Stylistic and Pragmatic Approach. New Delhi: PHI Learning Private Limited, 2010.
3. Edited by Walder, Dennis. Literature in the Modern World: Critical Essays and Documents. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
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