Gladwell emphasizes that extraordinary success isn 't determined by IQ score, but when and where you were born. The Matthew effect, an explanation of success, is dissected from the Bible verse Matthew 25:29. Simply, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. Gladwell gives examples of professional hockey players that were all born between the months January and March. Ironically, the age limits for different age groups in club hockey start January 1st. The older hockey players have a competitive advantage with their size and capabilities. So, they get more opportunities on the ice, even though others had similar passion, talent, and work ethic. Sociologists refer this phenomenon as the accumulative advantage. In addition to the month you were born, the generation you were born into makes a difference. For example, Bill Gates had access to a computer to code in the 1960 's. At this point in time, computers were shared through time cards. Gates had close to unlimited access to code, which was uncommon. In turn, Gates put in his 10,000 hours of hard work in order to specialize in this field. Opportunity, coupled with hard work, gave rise to Microsoft. The Ericsson 's study, a study to determine the acquisition of expert performance, revealed how much hard work makes the difference. This study analyzed performers in the top music schools. Th...
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...eve his scope is too small. There are plenty of stories where people that were born in poverty became outliers. The ones that became successful did, in fact, have opportunities. How did those opportunities come about? Gladwell might call it luck. However, I would not grant an opportunity to someone with the wrong mindset. It takes hard work and a positive mind to create opportunities. Luck is, therefore, a benefit of due diligence. The positive mindset provides opportunities, I believe Gladwell should have supported this idea in depth. Regardless, Outliers is not only a sociological feat but a self-improvement handbook. With this knowledge, people are now aware of what it takes to be an outlier, and, how much culture and language play their part. This book explores taking advantages of opportunities, values hard work, and uncovers how people bring value to the world.
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