Classroom management, involving all the strategies used by teachers in order to provide order in the classroom, can be regarded as an essential for effective teaching and learning. According to Davis (1981), “basic classroom management is just plain good sense. Yet, it can be as personal as your private lifestyle” (p.79). One of the biggest challenge teachers face day in and day out is dealing with behavior of children and young pupils in classroom. Therefore, the classroom practice of individual teachers would be the key aspect of improving the behavior of pupils in schools (Hart, 2010). One of the significant attribute of promise to teaching, especially in classroom behavior management, is teacher’s sense of efficacy. According to Woolfolk-Hoy (2000), development of self-efficacy is essential for producing effective, committed and ardent teachers, Moreover, teachers who are trained to be more effective in meeting both academic and non-academic student needs create a positive and successful classroom environment for all students (Alvares, 2007). The importance of self-efficacy in behavior management has been highlighted by Martin, linfoot, and stephenson (1999) who proposed that teacher’ responses to misbehavior may be mediated by their beliefs about their ability to deal with behavior, as well as their beliefs about the causes of student misbehavior.
Research findings regarding classroom managements have been applied in three domains in educational psychology: in-service and pre-service teacher preparation programs, teacher assessment and evaluation, and teacher’s pedagogical knowledge (Emmer & Stough, 2001).
2. Literature review:
2.1 Classroom behavior management
According to Emmer & Stough (2001), m...
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...scale is later corrective strategies, for example “Contacted student’s parents” or “referred student to other professional (e.g. school counsellor)”. Internal reliability analyses (Cronbach’salpha) resulted in acceptable (>.7) alpha coefficient scores of reliability for frequency, confidence, and success.
Once ethical approval was obtained, the principals in secondary schools in Kermanshah were contacted and the purpose of the study was explained and copies of the questionnaires were delivered to them. Participants could chose to complete the questionnaires anonymously, or confidentially if they chose to enter a prize draw to win one of three 50 thousand Tomans gift vouchers. This required the participants to provide an email address or phone number for prize notification. The requested email and phone number did not include participants’ names.
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