¥ Seeds Are Vital For Species That Lack Vegetative Means Of Propagation

¥ Seeds Are Vital For Species That Lack Vegetative Means Of Propagation

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¥Seeds are vital for species that lack vegetative means of propagation. For germination of the seeds to occur there are three essential requirements, oxygen, moisture and a suitable temperature. Each species has different combination of needs to germinate in terms of these essential requirements and therefor, will remain dormant in the soil until the conditions suit. Understanding the factors that effect germination can be very useful in developing controlling strategies.
There are three types of dormancy in weed seeds, for germination to occur the dormancy has to be broken. The first is innate dormancy, this is where dormancy is already present when the seed leaves the plant, this stops germination from occurring immediately. To break this dormancy includes things such as climatic conditions, coat cracking and ripening. Enforced dormancy is where conditions do not suit germination. The last is induced dormancy, this is where dormancy was induced by some event and usually needs a trigger to break the dormancy, such as phytochrome effect. Having an understanding on what breaks theses dormancy’s is useful when devising control systems.
Time of year has a major effect when weed seeds germinate, weeds tend to germinated more at certain times of the year. The majority of the problematic weeds in New Zealand (NZ) crops are annuals that tend to germinate in spring.
A strategy to work around this is to autumn sow it if is possible for the particular crop, examples of these are pastures and lawns. This therefor limits the germination of problematic weeds; however, a large proportion of crops need to be planted in spring. Soil herbicide can also be applied to the soil to reduce seeds but generally only kill weeds as they germinate.
When...


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...vides legislative power to restrict the establishment and spared of species
o Provides legislative power to regional councils to requires control of particular weeds in the area. Levels on Control requested:
♣ Weeds to be controlled by council
♣ Weeds to be totally controlled by owner
♣ Weeds controlled only by boundaries
♣ Weeds under consideration
♣ Plants for national pest plant account.
• The National Interest Pest response program list the 10 weeds that are trying to be eradicated and in addition the list of 100 weeds that can’t be sold
• The Ministry for Primary Industries is responsible for policing the quarantine laws
• For crop seeds to enter the country they must have an international seed certificate
The Environmental Protection Authority are responsible for deciding if new species are allowed into NZ under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act

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