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The Long Wavelength Array (LWA1)

- The 1st position of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1) was accomplished in April 2011 and is presently accomplishing observations ensuing from its first require proposals additionally to an extending program of commission and characterization observations. The system matching compactness for celestial point inform is approximate 3kJy and is roughly unaligned of frequency, this corresponds to a sensitivity of about 5Jy beam creating it one of the foremost sensitive meter wavelength wireless telescopes....   [tags: astronomy, Low frequency array LOFAR]

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The Effect of Wavelength on Photosynthesis Rate

- The Effect of Wavelength on Photosynthesis Rate Aim: To investigate how different wavelength (colors) of light affect the photosynthetic rate. I will use a pant that is a pond weed called elodea. I will measure the rate of photosynthesis by measuring the amount of o2 given off in bubbles per minuet from the elodea. I will do this by placing the Elodea in a test tube with sodium hydrogen carbonate then I will vary the light wavelength (color) using colored filters and count the number of oxygen bubbles given off using a pencil dot technique....   [tags: Papers]

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Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

- Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a technology that puts data from different sources together on an optical fiber, with each signal carried at the same time on its own separate light wavelength. Using DWDM, up to 80 (and theoretically more) separate wavelengths or channels of data can be multiplexed into a light stream transmitted on a single optical fiber. Each channel carries a time division multiplexed (TDM) signal. In a system with each channel carrying 2.5 Gbps (billion bits per second), up to 200 billion bits can be delivered a second by the optical fiber....   [tags: Technology Data]

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Sound and Frequency

- What comes to mind when someone says the word wave. Maybe you picture yourself waving your hand to say hello, or a wave on the ocean. In physics, a wave can be defined as a a repeating and periodic disturbance that travels through a medium and transfers energy from one point to another. This disturbance, or variation, can move up, down, forward or back, just think of the waves in the ocean. The medium is the substance or material that carries the wave, for instance, with ocean waves the medium would be the water itself....   [tags: wavelength, absorption]

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Investigating the Link Between Wavelength of Light and Rate of Photosynthesis

- Investigating the Link Between Wavelength of Light and Rate of Photosynthesis PROBLEM ======= I have been asked to investigate the link between wavelength of light and rate of photosynthesis. HYPOTHESIS ========== I predict that the order of best absorption in a plat to produce more bubbles will be blue, yellow, orange, red and finally green. I predict this because blue has the shortest wavelength which produces the most energy and there is slightly higher absorption in the blue region by the plant....   [tags: Papers]

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Investigating the Effect of Light Wavelength on the Rate of Photosynthesis

- Investigating the Effect of Light Wavelength on the Rate of Photosynthesis Plan ==== Method Take a 250cm3 beaker and fill it with distilled water. Use distilled water so there are no impurities to disrupt photosynthesis. Then take x cm's of elodia and put it in the beaker. Cover the elodia with the large end of a funnel and the tip of the funnel cover with a test tube. Then direct a light onto this experiment. Measure the amount of bubbles that come from the elodia for x minutes....   [tags: Papers]

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History of Earth Obersvation Satellites

- ... Actually, since 1982 , NOAA satellites has helped in saving more than 6500 lives as a minimum estimate as per united state civil defense statistics. 1.3 Applications 1.3.1 Oceanic and sea observation 1. EOS services used widely in disaster effects such as oil leakage. 2. Remote sensing color of water, River flows, lake sizes. 3. Coastal and river erosions. 4. Observing ice bergs and global warming effects. 5. Maritime ship detection and asset protections 1.3.2 Ground surface observation 1. EOS can give accurate information for forestry and agricultural management enquiries such as yield prediction, drought monitoring and field boundary managements, health and density and soil moisture....   [tags: surveillance, monitoring, wavelength]

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Obtaining the Wavelength of a Given Light Source Through Double Slit Diffractive Grating

- Obtaining the Wavelength of a Given Light Source Through Double Slit Diffractive Grating Aim The principle reason for conducting this experiment is to acquire the effects formed when diffractive grating takes place using a double slit diffraction disk and to find the wavelength of light, which is the purpose of diffractive grating. Theory ------ When electromagnetic waves are diffracted by diffractive slits, interference occurs. The pockets of light (photons) are dispersed into different directions....   [tags: Papers]

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Light, The Primary Source of Energy in Photosynthesis

- Light has a wave nature and particle nature. The smallest parts or units of light are called photons and the amount of photons absorbed per unit time determines the brightness of light. Wavelengths are a certain amount of energy each photon possesses as they vibrate. Chlorophyll reflects the wavelengths green part of the light spectrum because it is green and the plants that contain chlorophyll are green as well. This article may not be reliable because there was no date or author noted. This article clearly examines in what form light is absorbed and the process thereof....   [tags: carbon dioxide, wavelength, absorb]

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Different wavelengths of light affect on photosynthesis rates in tomato plants

- Background Information: The leaves of a plant are the main photosynthetic organs and are involved in gas exchange and water transportation throughout a plant (Evans et al, 17). A leaf typically consists of an upper and lower epidermis, the mesophyll cells, veins, guard cells and stomata. The mesophyll cells contains spongey cells which have large gaps between each cell to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide circulation. The mesophyll cells contain palisade cells, which are located beneath the upper epidermis....   [tags: Experiment Analysis]

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Physics Prac - Mesuring Wavelengths Of Light

- Aim: To determine the approximate value of l for red light using a diffraction kit. Theory: Diffraction of light is one explanation of the wave theory of light. Francesco Grimaldi first observed this type of behvaiour from light. However, Thomas Young was the scientist that was able to derive a mathematical formula where l can be calculated. The original experiment involved sending white light into a screen with two small holes to serve as point sources. The light from these sources was then projected onto a screen and light and dark bands were observed....   [tags: essays research papers]

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The White Color of the Sun

- ... The atmosphere is thicker when its closer to the earth but when its escalating to the space it starts getting thinner. Light travels in a straight line until something destroys it or it bumps into something like the gas molecule or even a little bit of dust,and what will happen after depends on the wavelength of the colors or the size of the element being hit,when it hits a big particle then it will bounce all around, reflect all into different directions,but hitting a small particle is much different some of it gets absorbed,it radiates in many different directions....   [tags: sunlight, prism, rainbow]

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An Analysis of Guitar Sounds

- Sound is defined as areas of high and low pressure that move outward to form a longitudinal wave. The amplitude and pitch of the sound is dependent on the source and amount of energy produced. Sound is produced by vibrating objects, the vibrations cause disturbances in the surrounding air molecules. When the vibrating object moves outward it causes the air molecules around it to compress and create a high pressure region. As the object moves inward the air molecules expand and create a low pressure region....   [tags: pitch, frequency, vibration]

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Research on Cancer and Cell Phones

- ... Although radiofrequency energy is non-ionizing and is not as dangerous as ionizing radiation, tissues in the body where the cell phone is frequently placed and exposed to still absorbs that energy. The most susceptible tissues to radiation are blood forming organs and then are the reproductive organs. Death is possible if the blood forming organs are exposed to high doses of radiation. As for reproductive organs, there has been a lot of controversy on whether or not it is safe for men to keep their cell phones in their pocket or belts and according to the Environmental Working Group (, a public health advocacy organization and an organization specializing in research,...   [tags: oxidative stress, electromagnetic radiation]

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How a Rainbow is Formed

- A rainbow is one of the most amazing things that can be seen in the sky. However, many people do not know how rainbows are formed. For a start, I will start by explaining how rainbows are formed. A rainbow occurs as a result of refraction and dispersion of white light, as it passes through a prism. Since a prism has two indexes, their difference causes light to diverge in different angles as it comes out of the prism. This splits the white color into many components, which are different colors. Since a raindrop contains two refractive indexes, it produces the different colors when hit by sunrays....   [tags: Light, Prism, Refraction]

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Analysis of Copper

- ... The absorbance recorded for the sample being tested can be matched with a concentration using the graph generated by the standards. Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy Spectroscopy involves the measurement of light absorbed or emitted from a sample. In ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), light in the ultraviolet-visible region has the same energy as energy levels for some of the electrons in molecules, so absorption of this radiation will excite electrons in a molecule to higher energy orbitals....   [tags: efficacy, accuracy, minerals, copper]

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The Evolution of Color Perception and Gender Differences

- Introduction The world around us is filled with colors--brilliant blues, pretty pinks, and ravishing reds--except it is not. The sun causes every last color seen by the human eye by the absorption of all the colors of the rainbow onto colorless particles except the one color that is seen (Van & Khouw, n.d.). Unfortunately, there is no uniformity within the world of color. One man’s red is another woman’s orange but why. Numerous factors affect the perception of color but are innate difference in genders one of those aspects....   [tags: color types, factors, perception]

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Physics of Water Waves

- All waves possess the properties of reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference. These phenomena's were observed with the use of a ripple tank. A ripple tank consists of a large rectangular tray with a transparent bottom. Water is placed in this tan to a depth of approximately one centimeter. A light source is then placed above the tray of water. When the water is disturbed it can be seen on a white surface positioned under the tray. The first phenomenon observed was reflection....   [tags: Lab Report]

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The Beer Lambert Law

- Introduction When white light passes through a prism, it forms a continuous spectrum of colors found in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The color of the compound is a blend of wavelengths that are transmitted and not absorbed by the sample. Beer- Lambert’s Law is applied in order determine the concentration of a colored species in solution. The concentration of the colored species is directly proportional to it absorbance at a wavelength. A= εbc which A is the absorbance, ε is the molar absorptivity, b is the cell path length in cm, and c is the concentration of colored species it makes a straight line where y=mx+b (Patterson 2)....   [tags: optics, light spectrum]

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Zacharias Jansen and The First Compound Microscope

- ... Spherical aberration is the blurred image of an object due to parallel light rays passing through the middle of the lens and focusing further away than light rays passing through the edges of the lens. The outcome is various focal points, giving a distorted/blurred image ( Chromatic aberration is a common optical issue that occurs when either wavelengths of colour are focused at different points in the focal plane and/or when the lens is unable to bring all wavelengths of colour to the same focal plane....   [tags: resolution, scientists, objects]

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum

- PART 1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum is the range of frequencies of possible electromagnetic radiation. The Spectrum ranges from 0 Hertz up to 2.4x1023 Hertz. The exact wavelength limits of the Spectrum are unknown however it is widely believed that the short wavelength limit is equal to the Planck Length (1.616x10-35m) and the long wavelength limit is the length of the Universe. Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is an occurrence that takes the form of self-propagating waves produced by the motion of electrically charged particles, which can move through matter or a vacuum....   [tags: Physics]

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Mathematics of Light

- Introduction Up to the seventeenth century, most theories attributed color to some sort of modification of light that was thought to occur when light interacted with matter. Light, in its purest form (such as sunlight) was thought to be colorless. However, progress in understanding color was made by Isaac Newton when in 1666 he was able to show that normal white light already contained all the colors of the spectrum, which could be separated using a prism. He also concluded from his experiments that objects have color because they selectively reflect certain colors of the spectrum while absorbing light of other colors....   [tags: Math]

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What´s Atomic Emission Spectroscopy?

- Atomic Emission spectroscopy is a technique used in the determination and quantification of elements present with a chosen sample. The basic idea of this process it that first an atom is formed, and then it is excited then emitted. After the photon is emitted and energy is released knowing the energy released one can quantitatively and qualitatively determine the wavelength present and hence the concentration of the element. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is one of the most powerful and popular techniques....   [tags: plasma, electromagnetic radiation]

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Physics of an Acoustic Guitar

- Physics of an Acoustic Guitar I have been watching my husband play the guitar in a band for five years and he has made it look so easy to make such beautiful music. Most guitar players have progressed with the technology of electric guitars, but when my husband picks up an acoustic guitar and starts to play a song for just me, I hear his love for me in the sounds that he produces. Imagine my surprise when a physics class conveyed to me that there was much more to his playing than I had imagined....   [tags: Music Instruments Essays]

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Our Universe as a Dot to Today

- Just under 13.8 billion years ago, our Universe was an infinitesimally tiny dot. A little less than four hundred thousand years after that however, it had become a hot, dense, highly ionized plasma with a temperature of about 5000 degrees Fahrenheit and a density about 109 times the current value (1). Then, something fascinating happened. The plasma underwent a rapid process of recombination, with protons attaching to electrons to form hydrogen, emitting photons with each reaction, and providing the footprints of the Universe of today (2)....   [tags: atmosphere, blackbody, theories]

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Electromagnetic Spectrum for the Middle School Student

- Electromagnetic Spectrum for the Middle School Student Waves are all around us and come in various forms. Sound waves can travel through air because air is made of molecules, which carry the sound. Another type of wave is electromagnetic waves, which are different than sound waves because they don’t need molecules to travel. This means that electromagnetic waves can travel through air and solid materials as well as empty space (Groleau 2011). The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all waves of energy found in our universe....   [tags: Physics ]

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Plant Physiology: The Shockwave Petunia Series

- ... The xylem is found towards the inside of each vascular bundle (see the diagram below), and the phloem towards the outside. In between the xylem and the phloem vessels there is a layer of cambium (see appendix). (ASBiology101, 2013). In a leaf, however, the vascular bundles form the midrib and veins of the leaf. They form a network, which gradually gets smaller and thinner with distance from the midrib. Within each vein, the xylem can be seen on top of the phloem. (ASBiology101, 2013). Xylem tissue consists of the xylem vessels to transport water and dissolved minerals; fibres to help support the plant and cells....   [tags: flowers, transpiration, proliferation]

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What Is a Spectroscope?

- Introduction In this two part lab we are to build a spectroscope from parts included with our lab kit to visualize and analyze the spectra of several light sources. In the second part of the lab we are to build a pinhole viewer. We are to then take the pinhole viewer and measure the diameter of the sun and moon. After completing both parts of the lab, there are several questions that need addressing. This paper examines and answers those questions. Spectroscope To understand this week’s experiment one must first understand what a spectroscope is and what it does....   [tags: sun, moon, eath, light sources]

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Physics of Rainbows

- When the Sun's light is refracted on passing through tiny rain droplets falling in the air a Rainbow is formed. Rainbows only need light from the sun or the moon and a large amount of spherical raindrops to form in the atmosphere. The rainbows can be compared to mini prisms. The light is refracted ("bending of light as it passes from one medium to another") and it causes different wavelengths (or colors) of the white light to separate. Whether these wavelengths of light will pass through the raindrop or reflect depends on the angle the light strikes the back of the raindrop....   [tags: physics rainbow rainbows]

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Aspects of Photoelectric Effect with Different Metals and Lights

- Aspects of Photoelectric Effect with Different Metals and Lights Hypothesis: signs of photoelectric effect would be present as photoelectric effect is commonly intrinsic for metals Variables: independent: type of metal, type of light, light intensity, distance between light source and metal dependent: current magnitude controlled: temperature, pressure Apparatus and materials: zinc plates, copper plates, ultraviolet light, light bulbs, power source, ammeter, voltmeter, coulombmeter, sandpaper, wires, crocodile clips, caesium-antimony photocathode Method for the control of variables: the temperature and pressure are kept constant throughout...   [tags: Papers]

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Factors of Dark Adaptation

- Dark adaptation: why can’t I see straight away when I turn the lights off. ‘When the subject/patient is exposed to a bright adapting light’1 causing the photo pigments to appear bleached by a biological pigment called Rhodopsin, this causes light to then turn off. There are two types of photo receptors present in the Retina; cones and rods. The rods are greater in quantity and are about 120 million. Rods are responsible for vision at low light levels, and aren’t sensitive to colour this is known as scotopic vision....   [tags: sight, cones, contrast]

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The Electromagnetic Radiation

- ... Gamma rays are a type of radiation which has an extremely high-energy beam which is almost the same as x-rays. If we are around gamma ray radiation it will heat up our cells and it will kill the cells as well and it will cause severe damages to our bodies. Radio frequency waves are types of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths that are in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma-rays are known to have the highest amount energy out of any other wave. The smaller the wavelength the wave length that has the higher the energy wave has since they are related....   [tags: cell phones, effects]

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Do-Re-Mi with Drinking Straws

- When playing a musical instrument, shortening the length of the air tube will make the pitch higher, and expanding the length of the air tube will make the pitch lower. Drinking straws can be cut to different lengths to produce different pitches. They can form a type of “oboe” (a woodwind instrument, similar to a clarinet) that will vibrate and create a sound when it is blown into. A straw that is half the length of another straw will be exactly one octave higher than the longer straw. It is recommended to use paper straws, because plastic straws are harder to focus into one note....   [tags: instrument, soundwave, oboes]

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Reasons Supporting the Existence of the Big Bang Theory

- The Big Bang theory states that although the universe is currently cooling and expanding, the universe was once much hotter and smaller. The most compelling evidence for the proof of the Big Bang theory are the movement of distant galaxies, the expansion of space time, and the hydrogen and photons in the universe. A spectrometer is used to measure the movement of distant galaxies. The spectrometer can measure the type of atoms the light was produced from, how bright the light is, and if the light is stretched or compressed....   [tags: expand, spectrometer, energy]

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The Effects of Ultraviolet Waves

- Electromagnetic Waves essay Radiation is the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles; an example of radiation is, electromagnetic radiation.This is a form of radiant energy which travels through space via electromagnetic waves. These waves can be found in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.The range of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum range from radio waves, to gamma rays, the waves in the middle consists of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet waves....   [tags: electromagnetic, spectrum, vitamin d]

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Solar Cell Experiment

- Solar Cell Experiment Introduction: Solar Cells convert light energy to electrical energy, so are transducers. Aim 1: To investigate any relationship present between the distance between a solar cell and a lamp, and the current output of the solar cell, at a fixed voltage. Aim 2: To investigate any relationship present between the power supplied to a bulb, and the current of a solar panel, at a fixed distance apart. When investigating a solar cell, there are several variables we could investigate....   [tags: Papers]

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The Physics Behind Remote Sensing

- Remote Sensing is the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between the electromagnetic energy and matter (Sabins, 1997). Remote sensing offers extensive applications in almost every area of science from monitoring forest fires to geologic mapping . Although many aspects of remote sensing are complex and difficult to understand the basic theory behind remote sensing is simple physics. There are four major stages of remote sensing. The first stage is the source of energy, usually the sun, which sends energy to a target....   [tags: Physics]

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Properties and Organization of Elements in the Periodic Table, a chapter summary

- In chapter seven we learned about the electron structure of an atom. We learned about the Bohr model, electromagnetic energy, and many other related topics. In this essay I will explain in further detail what light really is and how we describe it. I will describe the behavior of electrons in both a hydrogen atom and all atoms. I will explain the arrangement of the elements in the periodic table, state which electrons are chemically important in atoms, and lastly I will describe the properties of atoms and their relation to their electron arrangements....   [tags: light, Bohr, electrons]

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Celestial Objects: The Phases of The Moon

- Celestial objects have amazed the human race ever since history started being recorded. The moon, the stars and all visible heavenly bodies have been studied for thousands of years, millions of people over the decades have dedicated their lives to researching these wondrous objects. The moon alone has been the subject of not only research but endless discoveries as well, and for many others, the moon was a goddess. According to Donald J. Frederick, ancient civilizations like the Mayans deemed the moon as a feminine entity, they worshipped the moon in order to get pregnant....   [tags: greeks, mayans, nasa]

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The Analysis of Spinach Pigmentation During Photosynthesis (biology Lab Report)

- The Analysis of Spinach Pigmentation<p> During Photosynthesis <p> University of Alabama<p> I. Introduction:<p> "Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; it occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes" (Campbell, G-16). The formula below is photosynthesis and "the ingredients necessary to make a plant grow" (KoK, 30).<p> 6CO_2 + 6H_2_0,,³ C_6_H_12_O_6_ + 6CO_2<p> Photosynthesis occurs within chloroplasts which are in leaf cells....   [tags: Biology]

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Physics of Color Vision and Color Blindness

- What is Color. To understand what color is, we first need to understand what light is. Light, as perceived by humans, is simply electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between roughly 380 nm and 740 nm. Wavelengths below 380 nm and above 740 nm cannot be seem by the human eye. Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength just below 380 nm is known as ultraviolet radiation. Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength just above 740 nm is known as infrared radiation. The sun, black lights and fluorescent lamps are all sources of ultraviolet light....   [tags: physics eye sight vision color]

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Physics of Image Processing

- Missing Figures Characteristics of Light There are a few fundamental characteristics of light that are useful to be aware of before proceeding with the discussion on how CCD's and Film can function to save a useful, meaningful image. One of these important fundamental qualities is the fact that visible light is electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic Radiation, Photons, and Energy Levels Electromagnetic radiation has many different classifications. Some such classifications include AM/FM Radio Waves, microwaves, visible light, x-rays, and gamma rays....   [tags: physics photo photograph digital camera film]

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Mathematics of the Eye and Color

- Eye And Color The eye form a “optical image” on the light sensitive cell of the retina. It is very often compared to a camera in it so workings. However it is like a camera in its focusing properties but is very different after the light has hit the retina. The camera just prints a point to point representation of the image on film, where as the is much more complex and interesting. The visible light is only a very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and various wavelength in this visible spectrum of light represent different colors....   [tags: Math]

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The Physics of Ultrasound

- Without the use of physics in the medical field today, diagnosis of problems would be challenging, to say the least. The world of medical imaging in particular has benefited greatly from the use of physics. Ultrasound is sound waves that have a frequency above human audible. (Ultrasound Physics and Instrument 111). With a shorter wavelength than audible sound, these waves can be directed into a narrow beam that is used in imaging soft tissues. As with audible sound waves, ultrasound waves must have a medium in which to travel and are subject to interference....   [tags: Physics, Ultrasounds, medical, ]

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The Science of Sound

- Introduction Sound is a compressional wave caused by the vibration of an object. Waves can travel as transverse or compressional waves, depending on the relationship between the movement of energy and the movement of the medium; if the medium moves at a right angle to the energy, it is a transverse wave, and if it moves in the same direction as the energy, it is a compressional wave. Figure 1- a transverse wave and a compressional wave. Qualities of a sound Figure 2- a transverse wave, labelled....   [tags: wave, vibration, piano]

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The Effect of Absorption Rate on Light and Dark Colored Leaves

- The Effect of Absorption Rate on Light and Dark Colored Leaves. A particular leaf color may have an effect on the leaf’s absorption rate. An experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between a leaf’s absorption rate and color. A group of students tested spinach, cabbage, and no chloroplast solutions to determine the relationship it has with the absorption rate. It was found that darker colored leaves have a higher absorption rate than lighter colored leaves when analyzed from the graphs....   [tags: sunlight, chlorophyll, photosynthesis]

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Solar System: How The Sun Produces Light and Heat?

- How the Sun Produces Light and Heat. The sun is a star that is medium sized among the star categories. Solar system is pivoted around the sun. The sun is a primary source of light and heat for earth which is responsible for keeping the temperature of earth in a reasonable range that is sustaining life. There has been considerable debate on the source of heat and light that the sun emits. In 1850s scientists believed that the when gravitational force is converted into heat energy a light is produced....   [tags: nuclear reactions, fusion, stars]

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Methods and Latest Progress on Planet Detections

- When we look up into the night sky, we as humans are amazed by the vast unknown of the Universe. We can see thousands of glowing stars and other objects, but there are billions more that we cannot see. Many might wonder, with billions of stars and planets, are we the only living beings in this Universe. Along with many other questions. These answers do not come that easy. The only way for our questions to be answered is to allow astronomers and planet hunters to do their jobs. The processes and research that they use to find new planets and study ones that have already been found is very complex....   [tags: astronomy, extrasolar planets]

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Equilibrium Reaction Lab

- IBDP Chemistry IA: Equilibrium Reaction Lab Introduction: Reactions are based on collisions of particles, in which the particles must have sufficient energy. Some chemical reactions are reversible, and when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, the process has reached equilibrium. As it will appear to have stopped, as there is no overall change due to the rates being equal. Through this lab, we will be investigating one factor that will affect the equilibrium constant....   [tags: Chemistry, Collision of Particles, Reactions]

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Light Revision Notes

- Light Revision Notes When waves meet a boundary, where the medium (stuff) changes, they may: * reflect- bounce back e.g. light at a mirror, sound echoing off a wall * refract- go through the boundary, usually changing speed and direction as they do e.g. light through spectacles, water waves going from deep to shallow water * get absorbed - give up their energy, warming up the surface layer e.g. in a solar heater Quite often, there's some of each happening....   [tags: Papers]

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The Physics of Light Propulsion

- The Physics of Light Propulsion Imagine a mode of transportation which allows a craft to ride upon a beam of light. This craft uses virtually no fuel, simply the air around us. The uses for such a craft would be endless, launching small satellites into orbit and in the future launching vessels much like today’s shuttles. This idea is no longer a product of science fiction but rather a reality. It is all made possible by the physics which controls everything in our everyday lives. There are two main components to this light propelled craft....   [tags: Physics Science Technology Essays]

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The Science of the Guitar

- Sound is longitudinal wave produced by compression and rarefaction of matter. Sound is produced when a vibrating source creates rhythmic variations in the air pressure (zitzewits & Murphy, page 268) to determine the wavelength of sound you need an equation which is, v=fλ. To explain this equation in broken down context v=velocity (m/s), f= Hertz(Hz) and the symbol λ(Lander) is the unknown that needs to be solved in order to determine the wavelength. Physics of the guitar The guitar has been around for thousands of years in one form or another....   [tags: sound, vibration, frequency]

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Electron Microscopy Investigation

- Electron Microscopy Investigation The electron microscope was first made when biologists found a problem with the resolution of a light microscope. Resolution means “the ability to distinguish between two points”; the problem is that the maximum resolution of a light microscope is 200nm. So if two points are closer together than 200nm they are seen as one. One example of this problem is that under a light microscope the centrioles in an animal cell appear as one, however when viewed under an electron microscope we can see that there are two centrioles at right angles to each other....   [tags: Papers]

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How Guitars Make Sound

- INTRODUCTION When an object vibrates, the medium in which it is directly adjacent to create a mechanical disturbance, this creates sound. Sound is a pressure wave which travel through the medium which is usually air. The medium then carries the pressure waves to the ear of a person or animal. For example, when a guitar string is plucked, the string starts vibrating violently creating a pressure wave which travels through the medium and to an ear were the sound is heard. The equation of a sound wave is speed= wavelength x frequency....   [tags: frequency, vibration, waves]

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Electromagnetic Radiation Cell Phones

- A cell phone is a cellular device that can receive and make calls through radio link while being in any part of the world, as long as there is cellular network. • EME is electromagnetic energy also known as electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that we are surrounded by every day, emitted from natural sources like the sun, earth and the ionosphere. It is also emitted from unnatural sources like mobile phone base stations, broadcast towers, radar equipment, remote controls, electrical and electronic equipment....   [tags: broadcast towers, remote controls, cancer]

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Utrasound and Spatial Compunding

- ... 2012). Figure 1A (Lin et al. 2002) shows the reduction in image contrast, which results in a grainy appearance, and furthermore limits lesion conspicuity for regions of low contrast. The appearance of speckle is particularly obvious with on homogenous regions (Lin et al. 2012). A method to minimise this, is through spatial compounding whereby information is collected from several coplanar frames at different angles, hence artifact patterns from each frame is also collected (Lin et al. 2002)....   [tags: real time imaging, transmission]

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Reasons for the Existence of the Big Bang

- The Big Bang is the theory that the universe was once much smaller and hotter than it is now, and it has been expanding and cooling over time. With an understanding of a few key pieces of evidence one can understand the basis of the theory. The strongest pieces of evidence for the Big Bang are the movement of distant galaxies, the expansion of space time, and the hydrogen and photons in the universe. Measurements of the motion of distant galaxies reveal that they are all moving away from us, with farther galaxies moving away at higher speeds....   [tags: universe, galaxies, space-time]

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Photosynthesis:Energy from the Sun

- Identifying Photosynthetic Reactants And Products A. The water for photosynthesis in land plants comes primarily from the soil and must travel from the roots to leaves. B. Carbon dioxide is taken in, and water and O2 are released, through tiny openings in leaves , called stromata. C.Light is absolutely necessary for the production of oxygen and carbohydrate. The photosynthetic production of oxygen by green plants is an important source of atmospheric oxygen, which most organisms –including plants themselves –require in order to complete their respiratory chains and obtain the energy for life....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Ultrasonic Condition Monitoring Technique and Microstructure

- In Conventional ultrasonic non-destructive condition monitoring the testing personnel utilize his testing experience to interpret defects while analyzing the ultrasonic echo. Due to the coarse material structure, the ultrasonic wave attenuate more so sometimes it gives false impression of defect and provides unreliable results. The conventional inspection method is too subjective and highly relies on the effectiveness of testing personnel so the inspection reliability is low. To overcome these limitations a multi-interrogation ultrasonic technique and correlation of several parameters such as attenuation, acoustic velocity and grain size with material features is suggested in this paper....   [tags: Reliable Fault Detection, Comparative Essat]

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Color processing in the primates

- Color is a feature that is possessed by very few mammals. K .Tansely in one of his books on visual system the vision in vertebrates commented that “On the whole mammals appear not to have color vision, except for the primates where it is well developed and almost certainly trichomatic”. The word trichomatic was derived from a theory given by French physiologist Palmer in 1777 which stated the presence three different types of infinite number of molecules present in the human retina. These types are for detection of colors like red, blue and yellow....   [tags: Biology, Visual System, Colors]

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Improvement of Bit Rate Transmission

- The word “soliton” is meant to describe the particle like behavior of the optical pulses propagating through a medium . The pulses envelope for soliton not only propagates undistorted but also survives collisions just as particles do. The soliton are very narrow, high intensity optical pulses that retain their shape through the interaction of balancing pulse dispersion with the nonlinear properties of an optical filter. If the relative effect of SPM and GVD are controlled just right, and appropriate pulse shape is chosen, the pulse compression resulting from SPM can exactly offset the pulse broadening effect of GVD....   [tags: solition pulse, optical power, electrical spectrum]

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Solar Energy: A Viable Alternative

- In today’s world, there is a huge demand for energy. With the continuous depletion of fossil fuels, there is an urgent need for alternate forms of energy, in particular technologies that are renewable, sustainable, and inexpensive. Solar cells have been considered a promising potential solution to this problem, but issues with conventional photovoltaic cells based on crystalline materials include high manufacturing cost, poor durability, and limited versatility. Currently, only 0.25% of the United States electricity needs are met by solar energy; to contrast, coal provides almost 42% of the country’s electricity, despite the massive health and environmental effects associated with coal pow...   [tags: renewable energy sources]

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Color Vision Deficiency

- Famous British playwright Oscar Wilde once said, “Mere color, unspoiled by meaning, and unallied with definite form, can speak to the soul in a thousand different ways.” Now, imagine a world without the existence of color. It would be a sad, dark place to be. However this is a world that many people are forced to live in today. Individuals with color vision deficiency live in a muted world that normal sighted people will never fully comprehend. In order to truly appreciate the beautiful nature of color one must have a general understanding of the history behind the discovery of the function of perceiving colors....   [tags: perception, colorblindness, Dalton, daltonism]

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Skin Cancer in Australia

- Skin Cancer in Australia Skin cancer is a significant public health issue in Australia. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun in the UVA and UVB wavelengths is the primary cause. Australia has been a world leader in efforts to protect the ozone layer, the main line of defense against ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun. Ultraviolet radiation induces the formation of thymine dimers that cause mutation of skin cells if not repaired before DNA replication. Mutations of tumor suppressor genes can lead to uncontrolled cell growth....   [tags: Medical Health Dermatology Essays]

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Physics of musical instruments

- Physics is all around us, and yet we always overlook it. We see, hear or feel something happen but never stop to question why. Physics will tell us why. Music plays a part in everyone's lives. So much so that it is often overlooked and the technicalities of it are unappreciated. Sure there are times when we listen carefully to the music behind the songs we hear, we may focus on the rhythm or the harmonies, but we never think of what it took to make the sounds that we are hearing. In this paper, I will explain the physics musical instruments....   [tags: Music, Physics]

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What are the effects of different heating techniques on different metals?

- What are the effects of different heating techniques on various metals. When metals are heated, their properties are transformed and changed in various ways. Using different heating techniques will allow one to observe numerous changes of the metal. With some heating methods, metals can produce certain changes that might not be apparent with another heating method. “Although the approach of heating the metal is very important, the type of metal matters greatly (Zaucha, 2006).” Metals respond to heat in their own unique ways, so to accurately judge which heating method affected a metal in what ways, there needs to be a variety of metals and heating techniques....   [tags: Physics]

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The Physics of Basic Antenna Theory and Design

- Long ago there lived a race of cat people who had much the same problems with antennas that we humans have today: bad reception during the last few seconds of a game, continual snow during their favorite part of their favorite movie, and a severe lack of the "magic position" that one is required to hold when covered in tin foil and grasping the antenna. Unfortunately for them, they did not have this web page to reference and therefore they died. This left an opening for humans. Initially, humans could only communicate verbally over short distances, yelling distance that is, stirring in them a desire for long distance communication (very different from a long distance relationship, do not get...   [tags: physics]

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How the Telescope Opened the Universe

- Telescopes were one of the most important inventions in the science of astronomy. They opened up the sky, allowing people to see things previously invisible. With telescopes, scientists could look beyond the visible sky and learn about what exists past the night sky. From the earliest telescopes of Galileo’s age to the incredible telescopes used today, they have allowed people to see just how large the universe is and what makes up that universe. How the Telescope Opened the Universe When Galileo created his telescope and aimed it towards Jupiter, not only did he have the first view of something beyond the Earth, but his discovery proved that there was more to the night sky than the small p...   [tags: astronomy, telescopes, galileo]

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Elements of Light which Create Blue Skies and Red Sunsets

- Elements of Light which Create Blue Skies and Red Sunsets Throughout history, many people have wondered exactly what makes the sky blue and what makes some sunsets red. This can be done by examinations on how the scattering of sunlight by the Earth's atmosphere produces blue skies and red sunsets. Red sunsets have also been called orange sunsets because they are actually more orange in color. Blue Skies To understand why the sky is blue, one needs to understand a little about light. Light is a form of radiation, electromagnetic energy that travels in the form of waves possessing electric and magnetic properties....   [tags: Papers]

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Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect

- What is the "greenhouse effect?" It is the behavior of solar radiation when it interacts with gasses in the Earth's atmosphere. The Sun gives off a wide spectrum of energy which we classify according to its wavelength. Among the types of energy given off by the sun are ultraviolet (UV), visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths. UV is short wavelength high-energy radiation, visible is mid-wavelength, mid-energy radiation, and IR is long wavelength low-energy radiation. The atmosphere is mostly transparent to UV and visible light, but some components of the atmosphere absorb IR energy on its way in toward the Earth's surface, warming the atmopsphere slightly....   [tags: Greenhouse Effect Climate Change]

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The Physics of Ultrasounds

- The Physics of Ultrasounds Without the use of physics in the medical field today, diagnosis of problems would be challenging, to say the least. The world of medical imaging in particular has benefited greatly from the use of physics. Ultrasound is sound waves that have a frequency too high for humans to hear. With a shorter wavelength than audible sound, these waves can be directed into a narrow beam that is used in imaging soft tissues (Farr and Allisy-Roberts 183). As with audible sound waves, ultrasound waves must have a medium in which to travel and are subject to interference....   [tags: Medicine Medical Technology Essays]

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum

- The Electromagnetic Spectrum [IMAGE] The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range of radiant energies or wave frequencies. There are seven main regions in the electromagnetic spectrum. These are: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays and gamma rays. Each section of the EM spectrum has a different wavelength, these are shown in the table below Section of EM spectrum Wavelength (in cm) radio waves > 10 microwaves 10 à 10 infrared 10 à 10 Visible light 10 à10 ultraviolet 10 à 10 x-rays 10 à 10 Gamma rays <10 Each region of the EM spectrum has differ...   [tags: Papers]

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The Truth About Color Blindness

- Colorblindness is quite common, about 8% of the male population have it. Color blindness, or color vision deficiency, is the incapability to see color, or notice color differences under normal light. Color Blindness can change a person’s life. It can make it harder to read and learn, and certain careers are unavailable (Williams, 2010). The most usual case of color blindness is a sex-linked condition. This is caused by an error in the development of the retinal cones that distinguish color in light and transfer it to the optic nerve....   [tags: gene therapy]

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The Electro Magnetic Spectrum

- The Electro Magnetic Spectrum Radio Waves Radio waves are made by various types of transmitter, depending on the wavelength. They are also given off by stars, sparks and lightning, which is why you hear interference on your radio in a thunderstorm. Radio waves are the lowest frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum, and are used mainly for communications. Radio waves are divided into:- [IMAGE]Long Wave, around 1~2 km in wavelength. The radio station "Atlantic 252" broadcasts here....   [tags: Papers]

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Cancer Celll Imaging and Photothermal Therapy in the Neaf-Infrared Region by Using Gold Nanorods

- ... The process for synthesizing these rods was done by use of the seed-mediated growth method, but with limited alterations.0.0005M auric acid contained in 0.2M cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was reduced at room temperature to give rise to small nanoparticles sized 5 nm as the seed solution. This was followed by preparation of a 100 lm growth solution by reducing 0.001M auric acid in a solution containing 0.2M CTAB, 0.15M Benzyldimethylhexadecyl-ammonium chloride (BDAC), and 0.004M silver salt at 70 µL of 0.0788 ascorbic acid....   [tags: cancer research, dseadly disease]

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Surgical Management of Mucocele by Using Diode Laser

- Introduction Mucus extravasation cyst or mucocele is commonly occurring lesion in oral mucosa containing mucin that may result from trauma to minor salivary glands. It is a well‑defined tissue swelling composed of pooled mucus that escaped into the connective tissue from a severed excretory duct. The incidence rate is high and it is the second most commonly occurring lesion after irritational fibroma in the oral cavity, prevalent in second decade of life with no sex predilection. Commonly involving lower lip, followed by tongue, buccal mucosa, palate, and retromolar area....   [tags: Medical Case Studies]

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Analysis of the Absorption of Green Light Versus Red Light Absorption in Spinach Leaves

- Analysis of the Absorption of Green Light Versus Red Light Absorption in Spinach Leaves The goal of the experiment was to determine if green light had less ability to absorb than red light in spinach leaves. This was done by separating the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotene and xanthophylls) from one another using paper chromatography. The separated pigments were then analyzed for their absorption spectrum using a spectrographometer. When the data was graphed it clearly showed the higher rate of red light absorption over green light....   [tags: Photosynthesis Experiments Science Biology Essays]

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Causes and Types of Color Blindness

- Not being able to see the actual colors of an object must be frustrating. Many people suffer from color blindness. Being colorblind has way more than just not being able to see colors. Color blindness happens at birth and there is no cure. There is different types of color blindness and the reasons you can't see that specific colors. There is monochromatism, dichromatism, and Anomalous trichromatism. There is also three other types of color blindness which are Tritanopia/ Tritanomaly (blue-green), Deuteranopia/ Deuteranomaly (red-green), and Protanopia/ Protanomaly (blue-yellow) these are becauses of a missing cone or malfunctioning....   [tags: x chromosome, colors, dichromatism]

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Investigating Whether the Color of Light Incident on a Medium Affects Its Refractive Index

- Investigating Whether the Color of Light Incident on a Medium Affects Its Refractive Index Background – Refraction is the bending of light when it passes from one medium to another. Refraction occurs because of the change in density in the new medium which changes the amount of obstruction of the light causing the light to deviate from its original path and take a new, shortest one through the new medium. Refractive index is a unique property of transparent and translucent materials....   [tags: Papers]

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Cell Phones and Ionizing Radiation

- A cell phone is a device that enables us to communicate with our friends and families. It enables us to receive radio links that is moving around a wide environment area. Nowadays there are millions of users all over the world who uses the phone. The first to invent phone was Martin Cooper in 1970’s. Nowadays phones are so advanced that it is used in many different ways. People use for downloading apps, playing games, texting people, calling friends etc. When we talk over the phone many types of radiation are given out like microwave radio waves etc....   [tags: heat, gamma rays, cancer]

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1855 words | (5.3 pages) | Preview

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