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The Effect Of Concentration On Cell Voltage

- Through a galvanic cell, the voltages of the different combinations of metals was obtained as well as calculated. In Table 1, lead was utilized as the reduction half of each redox reaction in the galvanic cell, while the other metals acted as the oxidation half. Given that the concentration for each metal remained constant, this table is the basis for Table 2, which depicts the relative position of the reduction reactions when compared to the lead half-reaction. The most positive values reside at the top, indicating they have a stronger oxidizing agent, versus reducing, while the more negative values are more likely to reduce....   [tags: Electrochemistry, Galvanic cell, Redox]

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Factors of Voltage and Current

- During electric discharge machining process there are start and stop intervals known as ON time and OFF time. The machining is performed during the pulse ON time when in the gap between work piece and electrode the voltage is applied. Alternatively the time during which no voltage is applied is the pulse off time. A greater value of On time is selected to obtain a long duration of electric discharge to increase the material removal rate but also leads to poor surface finish. During the pulse off time re-ionization of dielectric occurs and it is also essential to avoid any short circuit leading to wire breakages....   [tags: wire, material, machining ]

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Voltage Sensor Of Membrane Potentials

- As the article was reviewed, it is clear that the main purpose of the research presented was to create a voltage sensor that would send out fluorescent signals and return responses from the actions of membrane potentials. The researchers also wanted a voltage sensor that would keep track of the membrane potentials in neurons at quicker rates by using a microscope that not only detects refection and adsorption but also fluorescence. The method, in this design plan, places the fluorescent protein into the extracellular, S3-S4, loop domain....   [tags: Neuron, Action potential, Membrane potential]

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Evolutionary Programming Technique for Voltage Control

- INTRODUCTION 1.1 OVERVIEW The fast growth and development in power system has made the system becoming heavily stressed and more complex from day to days. This is happened due to the several reasons such increased of load in the transmission lines and also the difficulties in constructing new transmission system as well as inconvenience in building up new generating plant near the load centers. These incidents may lead to the power system problems such as voltage instability problem or voltage collapse and loss maximization....   [tags: Thesis, Electricity, Engineering]

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Voltage Multiplier Technique

- This paper introduces the use of the voltage multiplier technique and passive absorption circuit applied to the non-isolated dc-dc converter in order to obtain high efficiency and high voltage gain. A passive absorption circuit is inserted in the interleaved flyback converter to transfer the leakage energy to load. The operation principle of the circuit is explained. This paper also deals with MPPT controlled high step up dc-dc converter. The switching element used in the flyback converter is MOSFETs, which is completely on and completely off....   [tags: passive absorption circuit]

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Voltage Limits and Currents on Power Systems

- ... Fig 2.5 shows the hybrid filter, which is a combination of an active series filter and passive shunt filter. It is quite popular because the solid-state devices used in the active series part can be of reduced size and cost (about 5% of the load size) and a major part of the hybrid filter is made of the passive shunt L–C filter used to eliminate lower order harmonics. It has the capability of reducing voltage and current harmonics at a reasonable cost. Fig 2.3 Shunt-type AF Fig 2.4 Series-type AF Fig 2.5 Hybrid filter Fig 2.6 Unified Power Quality Conditioner Fig 2....   [tags: harmonics, nature, limits]

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Powering A World; Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

- I. Introduction In today’s society, the need to have an adequate supply of electricity to run everyday tasks is in greater demand than ever. Everyday we turn our lights in our homes on and off without really thinking about if there is enough electricity to power each and every light. Throughout this paper, we examine Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law the sum of the electrical potential differences around any closed network is zero [1]. Represented by the equation ΣV=0, which means v1+ v2+ v3+…+ vn=0 [2]....   [tags: electricity, circuit, experiments]

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Enhancing the Power Quality by Mitigating the Voltage in a Power System

- The objective of the research is to enhance the power quality by mitigating the voltage sag/swell in power system by using various custom power devices using different approaches in electric distribution network. Development of compensator to enhance power quality has been an area of active interest for the past few decades. Passive compensators like shunt reactors and capacitors are uncontrolled devices and incapable of continuous variation in parameters. The emergence modeling, simulation and analysis has led to development of new and fast compensators....   [tags: electric distribution network]

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Simple Voltage and Current Measurement

- Experiment I Simple Voltage and Current Measurement Objective The objective of this experiment was to measure the Voltage and Current. Upon completion of this experiment I was able to: 1) Set the DC power supply to a specific voltage. 2) Properly connect the voltmeter to measure voltage. 3) Measure current with the ammeter. 4) Measure resistance with the ohmmeter. 5) Determine the accuracy of a given meter reading. Theory The theory required for this experiment was an understanding of Ohm’s Law....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Half Cells for Voltage: An experiment

- ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS Purpose: In this experiment, several different half-cells will be prepared and connected to find the voltages generated. Also, the concentration will be change in one of the solutions to see how this affects the cell potential. Thirdly, the electrical potential of a cell containing silver and silver chloride will be measured. Lastly, a cell containing copper (II) and ammonia will be constructed. The potential and the Nernst equation will be used to calculate the formation constant of the tetraamminecopper (II) complex ion....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Chemical Reactions Of A Cell Voltage Generated By Redox Reactions

- Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry which primarily focuses on the flow of electrons and the chemical reactions which occur due to the flow of those electrons. These chemical reactions are known as oxidation-reduction reactions, or simply redox reactions. Electrical energy provides the energy needed for the redox reactions to occur. Where oxidation occurs, reduction is certain to follow. Oxidation entails an increase in oxidation number, signifying a loss of electrons. Reduction entails a decrease in oxidation number, signifying a gain of electrons....   [tags: Electrochemistry, Redox, Electrochemical cell]

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Factors that Affect the Amount of Voltage in a Wire

- Factors that Affect the Amount of Voltage in a Wire We are going to find out what factors affect the ammount of voltage in a wire. Theory As soon as we turn on the power pack electrons are being forced through the wire. If we increase the voltage on the power pack this generates more heat in the wires but this can not be controlled. If the resistance wire is long it will take longer for the electrons to pass through. Just like if you were trying to run round a running track and sombody was holding you back....   [tags: Papers]

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Voltage: Ohms Law And Kirchhoffs Rules

- Voltage: Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's Rules ABSTRACT Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's rules is fundamental for the understanding of dc circuit. This experiment proves and show how these rules can be applied to so simple dc circuits. INTRODUCTION In the theory of Ohm's Law, voltage is simply proportional to current as illustrated in the proportionality, V=RI. As shown in this relation, V represent voltage which is the potential difference across the two ends of a electrical conductor and between which an electric current, I, will flow....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Low-Voltage Current-Tmode Realization of Digital Logic Gates Using CMOS

- ... MOS transistors (M23–M24) form current mirrors for the subtraction of drain current of MOS transistor M3 and M10. The circuit consists of a dual translinear loop (M27-M30). The drain-to-source current (IDS) of an MOS transistor operated in the saturation region is given by IDS = K(VGS − Vt)2 (6) VGS = Vt + (IDS/K)1/2 (7) Where K=0.5µ0COX(W/L) is transconductance parameter of transistor, µ0 is the electron mobility, COX is the gate oxide capacitance per unit area, W/L is the transistor aspect ratio, VGS is the gate-to-source voltages and Vt is threshold voltage of the MOS transistor....   [tags: implementing the basic logic function]

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An Inverter Testing System For Computer Room Air Conditioning

- bstract—This paper aimed at functional requirements with CRAC (computer room air conditioning) inverter test system, and realized the test system hardware platform design, while completing the software functional design and programming algorithm. For example in Self-Made 10Kw inverter and Schneider ATV31H 2.2Kw inverter, we research on its output three-phase voltage, three-phase current for balance analysis and harmonic calculations. Practical application shows that the system can achieve efficient automated test process, and the measurement results with manual measurement are the same....   [tags: communication technology, voltage]

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Methods Used to Eliminate Harmonics Multilevel Inverter

- Several methods have been used to eliminate or minimize harmonics of Multilevel Inverter (MLI) output. Even though several methods have been proposed, we are unable to reach minimum Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). A new carrier modulation technique (Pseudorandom Carrier Modulation) for multilevel inverter is proposed in this paper. Conventionally single triangular carrier is used to produce the fixed frequency PWM signal and cause discrete frequency harmonics, Electro-magnetic interference and audible switching noise....   [tags: PWM,industrial voltage,THD]

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18 Steps to Make a Chemistry Experiment

- STEP 1: Test the conductivity of the glasses with a volt meter. Look for the side which has resistance. To start this experiment off, we needed to determine the conductive side of the glass. The conductive side will have the resistance. This will be the most active in this experiment. It will take a huge part to this experiment because it contains the electrons that this experiment requires. STEP 2: Tape down the conductive sides to the table. Place each side with two pieces of tape except the side closest to you place one piece....   [tags: titania, tio2, chemistry, voltage]

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Non-Linear Load Leads to the Power Quality

- To sustain the modern civilization, all applications which is made by the increased use of modern electronics switches, and rapid growth of industries in which uses loads which is purely non-linear load leads to the power quality disturbance in to the utility system which leads to presence of harmonics in the power grid. When the harmonic currents flow in the power Grid, they can instigate problems such as Voltage distortion, PF correction capacitor parallel resonances, Power transformer heating and overload, Electric meter errors, Power cable failures, Telephone and communication line interference, Reduced Motor efficiency by the additional motor stator and rotor heating, Pulsating mechani...   [tags: electronics, voltage, power]

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Calculation of Phase Angle Diversity for Time-Varying Harmonic Currents from Grid Measurement

- 1. Introduction Number and variety of non-linear devices and installations used by residential and commercial customers are increasing continuously. Therefore the effect of harmonics in the network is more and more considered in both the planning and the operation of distribution systems. This analysis is not always easy, because multiple factors influence the emission and propagation of harmonics through the network, like the network impedance, the voltage distortion and the time-variation of number and type of connected equipment....   [tags: harmonics, network, voltage, distortion]

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Psychological Experiment to Improve Memory

- The experiment is a psychological study designed to help people improve their memory. However, the experimenter wants study a new method that will improve learning and memory by forcing people to learn. Researchers should know that positive reinforcement for correct responses is a way to develop animal and human memory. However, they want to figure out if pushing someone for incorrect responses will show similar effects. The teacher will give the student a set of pairing words to memorize within a certain time period....   [tags: learn, reinforcement, responses, voltage]

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Varying the Voltage Across a Fixed Value Resistor

- Varying the Voltage Across a Fixed Value Resistor For my project I am going to investigate the affects that occur when varying the voltage across a fixed value resistor. I will observe things that will happen. I will look at a variety of possibilities, and hopefully I will find out what happens when the voltage is changed. Planning ======== Things the voltage may effect when varied are: Current Heat Resistance I have decided to change the voltage and measure the current....   [tags: Papers]

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The Effect of Voltage on a Current Through a Filament Lamp

- The Effect of Voltage on a Current Through a Filament Lamp Equipment: · Power Supply. (Ranging from 0V to 6V). · Variable Resistor. · Ammeter. · Voltmeter. · 6V Filament Lamp. · 7 Wires. Definitions: Ammeter - This is a device that measures the current of electrons in Amps. It has to be placed in Series on the circuit. Voltmeter - This is a device for measuring the potential difference of the electrons in the circuit. They are measured in Volts. It is placed in Parallel. Variable Resistor - This acts in the same way as a normal resistor, to resist the current, but this one can have a variable (changeable) resistance....   [tags: Papers]

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An Investigation Into the Factors Affecting the Voltage Output of a Solar Cell

- An Investigation Into the Factors Affecting the Voltage Output of a Solar Cell My aim is to try and find out how much the voltage is affected when exposing different sized areas of a solar cell to a light source. From this I will also establish the energy of each photon and approximately, the number of freed electrons, which can make an electric current flow. I know that light consists of packets or quanta of energy called photons. When electromagnetic radiation such as light shines on materials (usually metals), which emit electrons the light photons containing energy are captured by the electrons....   [tags: Papers]

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Establishing the Current-Voltage Relationship For a Metal Conductor

- Establishing the Current-Voltage Relationship For a Metal Conductor Investigation- To Establish The Current- Voltage Relationship For A Metal Conductor. In this experiment I will be investigating the current- voltage relationship for a metal conductor. The variables that I need to keep constant in this experiment are: 1. Thickness of the wire. 2. Length of the wire 3. Input of voltage coming from the power supply should be kept constant. 4. Temperature of wire should be kept constant....   [tags: Papers]

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Electrical Project Laboratory Report

- Cover Memo The outcome of my electrical project was a terrific outcome. I managed to work out my schedule to efficiently and effectively complete the circuit. My first mission was to come up with a legitimate set of calculation which would allow me to meet my criteria for the project. After successfully coming up with calculations, this subsequently led to me beginning to build my circuit. Building the circuit became a challenge because I had to remember to align my voltage drops with the correct resistors....   [tags: Science Experiment, Electrical Circuit, Voltage]

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A High-Voltage Compliant Microelectrode Array Driver for Neuro Prosthesis: Effects of Process Variation

- 1. INTRODUCTION The loss of physiological functions can be restored partially or completely using functional electrical stimulation and this mechanism has been used in a number of biomedical devices such as the mo- tor nerves stimulator [1], pacemaker, urinary implant [2], and cochlear implant [3]. The advance in microelectronic technologies is allowing the researchers to engineer highly miniaturized implantable integrated microsystems [4]. Some of these implantable advanced prosthetic devices use intracorti- cal functional electrical microstimulation for recovering diseases such as Parkinson and epilepsy [5]....   [tags: electric stimulation of brain]

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OHM´s Law and Magnetism

- Ferro magnets, permanent magnets made from iron, copper, and cobalt, were first discovered by the ancient Greeks and Chinese, which they called lodestones and were turned into compasses by striking the “stones” against a steel tip. These compasses were then distributed to sea faring travelers such as C. Columbus and M. Polo, and around year 1600A.D. it was discovered by William Gilbert that the entire Earth harnessed a giant magnet from within by observing the compasses and how the north needle moved toward the upper axis.[11] With the advent of magnetism, the search continued to understand the mysterious force of magnetism that the objects were acted upon....   [tags: ferro magnets, iron, voltage, resistance]

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Investigating the Effects of the Power of an Electrical Heater Vary with the Voltage Supplied to It

- Investigating the Effects of the Power of an Electrical Heater Vary with the Voltage Supplied to It Aim: To investigate how the power of an electrical heater varies with the voltage supplied to it. Scientific Background Research: What is resistance. Electricity is conducted through a conductor, in this case wire, by means of free electrons. The number of free electrons depends on the material and more free electrons means a better conductor, i.e....   [tags: Papers]

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An Investigation To Show How the Voltage Affects the Current In a Light Bulb

- An Investigation To Show How the Voltage Affects the Current In a Light Bulb Aim:~ An investigation to show how the voltage affects the current flowing through a light bulb. Hypothesis:~ I predict that as the current increases the voltage of the lamp will also increase; thus causing the resitance to decrease. I think this because of Ohm's Law which states that current will increase in proportion to voltage; if the current is doubled the voltage is also doubled. Bearing this in mind my graph should resemble my diagram below: [IMAGE] X X X X [IMAGE] X X X X [IMAGE] If the voltage across a light bulb is increased, more current w...   [tags: Papers]

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Investigating Which Metal Combination Gives Out the Most Voltage in a Solution

- Investigating Which Metal Combination Gives Out the Most Voltage in a Solution Background Metals are an order of chemical elements in the periodic table. They are arranged in atomic number. All of them are solid (apart from mercury), good thermal and electrical conductors and are shiny when polished. Metals and non - metals are separated in the table by a diagonal line. -------------------------------------------------------------------- The reactivity series is a table to show which metals are most reactive to the least reactive....   [tags: Papers]

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Which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid

- Which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid Introduction In this investigation we will find out which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid. The metals used will be: · Aluminium · Zinc · Iron · Tin · Lead · Nickel · Copper To make a prediction on what metals will be the ones that give the highest voltage when combined together you need to find out if the position in which the metals are at in the reactivity series would make a difference, and if it does, how....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]

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Circuit Analysis Using Kirchoff's Voltage Law, Kirchoff's Current Law, and Ohm's Law

- Have you ever wondered how or what makes an electric circuit function. A fact that many people don't realize is that almost every electric circuit can be analyzed with three very important laws. Those laws are Kirchoff's Current Law, Kirchoff's Voltage Law, and Ohm's Law. With some practice and the above stated laws in your tool bag, you can feel assured that you too can analyze electric circuits with the best of them. However, before we get into the nitty-gritty of defining and using these laws, I recommend that you first connect to the links that offer a little historical information about the two men that defined these fundamental laws for electric circuit analysis....   [tags: physics kirchoff kirchoffs law ohm ohms law]

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An investigation into whether the voltage affects the amount of gas produced during the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution

- An investigation into whether the voltage affects the amount of gas produced during the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. Prediction: I think that hydrogen gas will be produced due to the half equation 2H +2e àH this will be produced at the cathode because opposites attract and the hydrogen ions are positive. At the anode I think that chlorine will be produced due to the half equation 2CL -2e àCL the chlorine ions are negative so they are attracted to the positive electrode. I also think that as the voltage is increased the amount of hydrogen gas produced will increase this is because of a series of scientific equations: if the voltage is increased the current then is increased, th...   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]

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Relevant Theory / Background Information ( Heading, Level 2 )

- Relevant Theory/Background Information (Heading, Level 2) Experiment 2 : Diodes are basic semiconductor devices that will only allow current to flow through them in one direction only, Forward bias. Diodes are made from two differently doped layers of semiconductor material that form a PN junction. When the diode is reverse biased, the positive holes are attracted towards the negative voltage and away from the junction. Likewise the negative electrons are attracted away from the junction towards the positive voltage applied to the cathode....   [tags: Rectifier, Diode, Zener diode, Direct current]

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Solar Cells and Theory of Factors that Influence PV Cell Output

- Introduction Due to soaring price and negative impact to the global environment of fossil fuel, demand for clean and renewable energy has increased quickly in recent years. Solar energy stands out as it is relatively easy to install and require little maintenance. Current applications range from power supply for calculators to satellites and space stations. Also, many people decide to mount solar panels on their properties to provide energy for water heating. In some countries, not only it is cheaper but owners also get paid for extra electricity they produce which is sent to power plants....   [tags: Irradiance, Temperature]

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Applying the Engineering Project Design Process to a Simple Electrical Circuit Problem

- RE: Electrical Lab Report The purpose of this project was to apply the engineering design process to a simple electrical circuit problem. The goal is to design and build a specific electrical circuit. A small breadboard, 25 common resistors, and jumper wires were given to construct a voltage divider. The project requires students to understand Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws. The project can be broken into two parts. The first part is solving voltage drop and resistance needed to drop that much voltage....   [tags: electrical lab report]

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Power Balancing Strategy Stalled Near The Load Side, Reducing Line Losses And Large

- Abstract—This paper proposes a power balancing strategy stalled near the load side, reducing line losses and large for dispatchable and/or non-dispatchable sources in an islanded investment to build a transmission and distributed network. microgrids. This control method enables energy storage system Majority of distributed generators, encompasses wind power, that employs an constant voltage bandwidth in a dc busbar voltage to maintain voltage steady stage position for a short solar power, fuel cell, small scale gas turbine and so on, period disturbance in a network....   [tags: Wind power, Renewable energy, Battery]

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DC DC Converters to Suitable Applications of Coil Gun

- Acknowledgements The author would like to gratefully acknowledge the guidance and encouragement of Mr. Billy Chow, the Project supervisor who inputs further stimulated my interest to look more into issues related to simulation of circuit and nurture me with ideas to improve the design and testing process. In the successful indicates the correct direction of this project. Executive Summary The aim of project is to researches and analyses for DC DC converter to suitable application of coil gun. In this project, the DC converters have different type and characteristics....   [tags: software, circuits, switch]

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Power Quality: The Key to Successful Delivery of Quality Product and Operation in Industry

- Power quality (PQ) is the key to successful delivery of quality product and operation in industry. Both electric utilities and end users of electrical power are becoming increasingly concerned about the quality of electric power. The term power quality has become one of the most prolific buzzword in the power industry since from the late 1980s.power quality may also be defined as the degree to which both the utilization and delivery of electric power effects the performance of the electrical equipment....   [tags: electric power production and distribution]

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Analysis of a DC Circuit

- ANALYSIS OF A DC CIRCUIT PROBLEM 5 Objective: To Analyse the following DC Circuit using Mesh Analysis & Thevenin’s Theorem. Determine the unknown voltage, Current and Direction of flow across the Circuit. Evaluate Pro’s and Con’s of the Mesh and Thevenin’s Theorem. Assumptions : In the Above Circuit current (I1 , I2 , I3 ) is assumed to be flowing in the conventional direction i.e Clockwise . The Source voltage denoted by XX has been assumed to be 86V.   Mesh Analysis Mesh analysis is a method that is used to solve planar circuits for the voltage and currents at any place in the circuit....   [tags: Research Analysis]

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An Adaptive Incremental Conductance MPPT in Photovoltaic Array

- Abstract-Many different techniques for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic arrays were introduced. This paper develops an adaptive maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for optimizing solar array performance based on incremental conductance (INC) and gradient descent algorithm .In conventional INC method the step size determines how fast the MPP is tracked. Fast tracking can be achieved with bigger increments but the system might not operate exactly at the MPP and oscillate about it instead; so there is a tradeoff between the time needed to reach the MPP and the oscillation error....   [tags: Energy ]

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Measuring Electron Movement, Trajectory, and Charge-To-Mass Ratio

- The e/m (electron charge: mass) of electrons Aim The aim of this experiment was to study the movement and trajectory of an electron that moves perpendicular to a magnetic field and measure the charge-to-mass ratio of an electron. Abstract An electron beam was fired through a magnetic and electric field. These two fields are connected to two power supplies and these power supplies are altered. The alteration of these voltages will change the strength of the electric and magnetic fields. Varying the magnetic and electric fields will change the trajectory of the electron....   [tags: Physics]

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The Historical Development of AC Electricity and the Scientific Debate between Edison's DC Power System and Tesla's AC Power System

- The historical development of AC electricity and the scientific debate between Thomas Edison’s DC power system and Nikola Tesla’s AC power system By: Avi Sharma (999817587) The development of distributed power generations has an intriguing history, starting from the dispute between choosing between DC and AC for power distribution to the current applications of the two types of current. The first instance of an Alternating Current motor appeared in 1882, where Sabastian Ferranti, in conjunction with Lord Kelvin designed electronic devices that could be used to implement an AC power system, including electrical generators and transformers....   [tags: electric current distribution]

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An Optimal Solar Power Management System with Maximum Output Control

- [3] INTRODUCTION Micro system designs [1]-[3] that feature sensing technology, miniature radio transceivers, low power consumption and tiny volumes are now gaining more attentions in both commercial and research communities. By utilizing the energy harvested from the environment, the device lifetime can be extended to virtual infinity as long as the energy source exists. Harvested energy is either stored in energy buffer for later use or directly used to power computation circuit. Here, the environmental energy can be from solar, vibration, heat or radioactive decay of matters, while solar energy is most popular because of its ubiquitous spreading, high power density, etc....   [tags: microsystem designs]

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Using Ohm 's Law ( Ohm )

- Theory In all power supplies there is a potential difference between its two-opposite terminals. These terminals are usually denoted as positive and negative and if a wire with a resistor is hooked up to each end of the power supply charge can be moved through the wire. The movement of charge is called the current and it caused by electrons that move in a metal wire. If a power supply maintains a constant across a resistor we can calculate the value of this current by using Ohm’s law. Ohm’s law is I=V/R and this works if the resistance value is constant....   [tags: Ohm's law, Electrical resistance, Resistor]

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Primary and Secondary Batteries

- I. INTRODUCTION Primary and secondary batteries are used for low power devices. Primary batteries are non rechargeable and it is much cheaper. Secondary batteries are rechargeable which is used in mobile phones. A diode is connected between the solar PV module and DC-DC boost converter in order to avoid the discharge of batteries at null or low irradiance. The extracted voltage and current of PV is found to calculate the power of PV module. This is applied to low power PV module less than 1W....   [tags: power devices, rechargeable]

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Impulse Generator and Lightning Characteristics Simulation

- ... For different input values, the corresponding waveforms will be obtained. The main focus of this research will be towards accessing waveforms and its characteristics that corroborates the industry standard and laboratory experimental values with expected accuracy not lesser than 60%.This software will be made available to work in cross platform operating systems such as Windows, android, Mac etc. so that the user can download and install the application in their favourite media device at their own comfort....   [tags: insulation, electric power]

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Four Categories of FACTS Devices

- The FACTS device concept was introduced by the Electric Power Research Institute in the late 1980. Since then facts devices have become more and more popular in power systems. Before the introduction of FACTS conventional power flow control techniques were there but they were not fast enough, need to be manually operated and lacked proper co-ordination leading to acceptance of FACTS devices. As years pass by more and more advancement in FACTS technologies are evolving. FACTS controllers can be divided into four categories based on their connection in the network - Shunt Controllers, Series Controllers, Combined Series-Series Controllers and Combined Series-Shunt Controllers....   [tags: power systems, controllers]

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What is a Power Inverter?

- ... The batteries provide a constant voltage source at the DC input of the inverter. 2) Grid-Tied Inverters These inverters operate coupled to the electrical distribution network and therefore must be able to produce almost perfect sinusoidal voltages and currents. In our project, the PV System is Grid connected so we will discuss only Grid-Tied inverters in detail. MAJOR TYPES OF PV INVERTERS 1) Centralized Inverters Fig:1 Centralized Inverters Initially, the interface between Photovoltaic power supply and the grid rely on the centralized inverter technology, as shown on Fig....   [tags: stand alone inverters, types of inverters]

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Coupled Inductor Interleaved Boost Converter with LC Filter for Ripple Free Current

- This paper presents coupled inductor interleaved boost converter with LC filter for ripple free current. Based on the conventional coupled inductor interleaved boost converter, two coupled inductor and two LC filter is added to the proposed converter .So the proposed converter achieves reduced input and output current ripple. Hence the ripple ratio of input and output current is reduced. In order to verify that, a proposed converter of 12v input voltage and 24v output voltage operating at 50 khz is constructed....   [tags: Photovoltaic, Circuit, Converter]

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Two Features of the Photo-Electric Effect

- The photo electric effect, which was first documented by Einstein in 1905, and posited that the energy of liberated electrons is linearly dependent on the frequency of incident photons. This paper investigates this relationship and measures Planck's constant ($4.36\pm 0.04\e{-21}$MeVs), and the work function of the photo diode ($-1.52\pm0.02$V). Another phenomena which is checked is the charging time of the stopping potential voltage. While there was some dependence between stopping voltage and intensity, this effect is mostly systematic....   [tags: Research Analysis]

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The K+ Channel, A New Hope For a Better Understanding

- The K+ Channel, A New Hope For a Better Understanding The axons of our neurons are the pathway for the communication that exists in our nervous system. This communication takes the form of an electric signal, also called an action potential. The action potential occurs due to a change in voltage across the membrane of the axon. The change in voltage is achieved by a change in the concentrations of the ions, Na+, Ca+, and K+(1) . The cell starts with a large concentration of potassium ions, K+, inside the cell, and a large concentration of sodium ions, Na+, outside the cell....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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What´s Power Quality?

- ... In this, focus is put on the power disturbances that effect the equipments adversely. • This perspective also concerns with the customer’s side of the meter. In this, manufacturer of the equipment should be aware of the level of the power disturbances and their frequencies of occurrences so as to determine the tolerance limit of the equipment. • This perspective is from the utility. They are interested in power disturbances on both sides of the meter. They are concerned with how the power disturbances that have originated on the utility side will affect the customer equipments....   [tags: perspective, customers, disturbances]

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Investigatiing Whether the Thickness of Lead Inside a Pencil Affects the Resistance

- Investigatiing Whether the Thickness of Lead Inside a Pencil Affects the Resistance Aim The aim of this investigation is to find out whether the thickness of a lead inside a pencil affects the level of resistance when connected to and electrical circuit. Prediction I think that lower resistance will be shown in the results from pencils with thinner lead because the current will ba able to pass through the lead easier. Preliminary Test Our preliminary test was for the purpose of finding out whether doing the investigation in different ways would affect the results....   [tags: Science Experiment, Informative]

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Chapter 2 : Structure And Results

- ECE 699C Graduate Project dq transformation Professor: Dr. BRUNO OSORNO Submitted by Name: Akhilesh Dutt Sharma CSUN ID #: 104949453 Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Machine Model Chapter 3: Transformation Chapter 4: Inverse transformation Chapter 5: Balanced Condition Chapter 6: Transforming Voltage Equation Chapter 7: Final Model Chapter 8: Simulation and results Conclusion References/Bibliography/Works Cited Introduction To concentrate or to direct the useful flux most of the machine now days uses iron as a medium, to store energy or to provide th...   [tags: Magnetic field, Electromagnetism, Electric charge]

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Physiology Of Frog Skeletal Muscle

- BIOL: 1412: 0A07 Physiology of Frog Skeletal Muscle Jerzy Twarowski Group Members: Jerzy Twarowski, Nikki Youd, Liu Ziwei Introduction The skeletal muscle tissue is a tissue found in the muscles that is controlled by the somatic nervous system. This means that the muscle is under the conscious control. It is also called a striated muscle, because of its appearance under the microscope caused by the parallel and regular positioning of two different proteins –actin filaments and myosin filaments (Sadava, 2014)....   [tags: Myosin, Muscle, Muscular system, Skeletal muscle]

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Current Characteristics of a Resistor and a Filament Lamp

- Current Characteristics of a Resistor and a Filament Lamp Both a resistor and a filament lamp obey Ohm's law. Ohm's Law ========= As voltage doubles, so does the current for a conductor at a constant temperature. Diagram for Experiments ======================= Resistor -------- [IMAGE] [IMAGE] Filament Lamp [IMAGE] Results Table's =============== Resistor -------- Power Pack Reading Voltage (V) Current (A) Resistance 2 0.65 0.06 10.83 4 2.36 0.27 8.74 6 3.92 0.45 8.71 8 5.94 0.70 8.49 10 7.58 0.90 8.42 12 9.35 1...   [tags: Papers]

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SCN5A and Nav1.5 Mutations in Regular and Irregular Cardiomyocyte Function and Arrhythmic Conduction Disorders

- In the heart, electrical conduction by gap junctions allows for the rapid and synchronous contraction of the heart by the net flux of K+, Ca2+, and Na+ ions1. These ions also enter cells through ion channels to initiate and propagate action potentials; the sodium ion channel is an integral part of this regulated process. Sodium channels are made of essential but varied subunits. For example, the Nav1.5 sodium ion channel, a major voltage gated channel in the heart, has an α-subunit that is coded for by the SCN5A gene2,3....   [tags: Transcriptional Errors, Sodium Channels]

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Development of a Microgrid Management System for Reliable Operation Considering Distributed Generators

- Introduction: The microgrid system comprising of small-scale distributed generation system and loads can be promptly incorporated by means of the renewable energy sources [1-2]. Numerous researches have been conducted on the microgrid notion [3-5]. The performance of microgrid system is complex and irregular while some microsources are associated. In order to understand the behavior of a microgrid with several microsources, key issues such as microgrid control, stability, and protection have to be considered in detail....   [tags: energy, renewable sources]

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Auto-Calibrated Low-Power/High-Speed SRAM Based on a Hybrid Sense Amplifier

- Abstract- In this paper a dual-mode Power/ Performance optimized mode is presented. This dual-operating mode SRAM compensates the delay in Speed-Optimized mode by powering down the pre-charge voltage in the cases the sense amplifiers are slower than designed and a same approach for Power-Optimized mode is applied in which the access time is increased in each iteration. The proposed scheme with a macro cell representing a column with 512 cells is implemented in 0.18um CMOS technology. 45% improvement in read frequency is confirmed in power optimized mode and also a 2× improvement in the failure rate is achieved in comparison to the conventional schemes using the simulation and measurement re...   [tags: Computer Engineering]

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Determining the Approximate Equivalent Circuit of a Single-Phase Transformer

- Determining the Approximate Equivalent Circuit of a Single-Phase Transformer AIM --- To determine the approximate equivalent circuit of a single-phase transformer. OBJECTIVE --------- To write up a lab report that will determine the equivalent circuit of a single-phase transformer, using open load test, short circuit test and the load test. EQUIPMENT --------- · TecQuipment electrical machines teaching unit NE8010 or NE8013 · B-phase transformer (EMTU-TT01) · Feedback electronic wattmeter · Multi-range moving-iron ammeter · Instrument voltage transformer THEORY AND INTRODUCTION ----------------------- Transformers are used...   [tags: Papers]

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Action Potential and Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential

- Take Home Essay 1: Action Potential There is a series of events that leads to action potential. Neurons can send and receive input from other neurons through a chemical that is called a neurotransmitter, which is stored on the postsynaptic membrane. If the input is powerful enough, the neuron will send the message down downstream neurons from dendrite to axon terminals, and this process stimulates other neurons. Action potential is an electrical excitation that travels along the membrane neuron reaching the synaptic terminal (Inlow, 2013)....   [tags: neurons, neurotransmitters, potassium channels]

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The Computer Central Processing Unit

- Every day the majority of us interact with computers in one way or another. Be it the computer we use at work or home, the computers in some of the newer cars, or even our cellphones, which are just small computers, we rely on computers for a lot of things. But not many people know how a computer actually works. What’s inside of a computer that makes everything it does possible. Three of the most important pieces of hardware in the computer are the hard drive, the Random Access Memory (RAM), and the Central Processing Unit (CPU)....   [tags: hard drive, RAM, CPU, data, SSD, processor]

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Electricity Production

- Electricity is a necessity in our lives. Many people can’t function daily without it. Everything in a home functions primarily with electricity. It takes great precision and a lot of around the clock work to insure power is available for use. The process of producing electricity is taken for granted by most people because it seems to always be readily available. No one truly appreciates the need for electricity until the power goes out. Many years ago, food was kept cool in ice boxes, houses were kept warm by using wood burning ovens, and were lit by using kerosene lamps....   [tags: Energy ]

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The Spectral Response Of Solar Devices

- PV devices are rated under standard test conditions (STC) at temperature of 25℃, light intensity of 1 kW/m2, and light spectrum of air mass (AM) 1.5 global (G) spectrum. Even so, PV cells are subjected to different conditions thus they need to be characterised to make the ratings more comprehensive [11]. 3.2 Objectives The goals of this section are: Study the output current produced by the modules at varying input voltages. Correlate the current-voltage and power-voltage curves of three different samples under two different irradiances of 200 W/m2 and 600 W/m2....   [tags: Solar cell, Photovoltaics, Photovoltaic module]

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Types of Inverters for Generated Solar Power with Grid Power

- 1. Grid-Tie Inverters : A grid-tie inverter (GTI) is used to complement the generated solar power with grid power. In addition to regulating the voltage and current received from the solar panels, a GTI ensures that the power supplied to the distribution panel of the load will be in phase with the grid power. On the DC side, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) optimizes the power output by varying the closed loop system voltage. On the AC side, these inverters ensure that the sinusoidal output is synchronized to the grid frequency....   [tags: Photovoltaic, Electricity]

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A Thermistor for Measuring Temperature in Bath Water

- Instead of having 3 LED’s as the visual output, and alternative would be to use a seven segment display to show a number telling you when a certain temperature is reached. The advantage of this is you can have more than 3 indicators, so you could have different numbers show depending on what age the person having a bath is. For example you would wait for a lower number to show if it’s a baby. The disadvantage of using a seven segment display as the visual output is it isn’t simple enough, when you have a bath you don’t need it at an exact temperature so just having 3 LED’s that light up when the temperature is in that range is enough to tell you if it too hot or too cold....   [tags: electronics, LED]

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Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitor

- ... The tantalum slug is dipped into weak acid at high temperature and control the current and voltage to form the oxide layer. The thickness of the dielectric can be controlled by the voltage during formation process. The following process is production of the cathode electrode plate by making manganese nitrate into manganese dioxide with pyrolysis process. The tantalum slug is then dipped with aqueous manganese nitrate and heat with high temperature to produce dioxide coat. Repeat this process several time to get different concentration of nitrate solution to make sure we have good penetration of anode....   [tags: construction, properties, application, strength]

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Resistance of a Wire Investigation

- Resistance of a Wire Investigation Resistance is to do with how easy it is for the electric current to flow through a material, e.g. a piece of copper wire. Some materials have virtually no resistance when they are cooled down to absolute zero, they are called super conductors. Mercury will do this. Materials like plastic, wood, polythene, ceramics and rubber have very high resistances so that it is almost impossible for electric currents to flow through them. These materials are called insulators....   [tags: Papers]

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The Physics of an AM Radio

- The Physics of an AM Radio It’s was a beautiful sunny morning and Bill just kissed his wife goodbye and headed out the door on his way to work. As Bill got into his car he realized that he missed the Utah Jazz game the night before because of a late business meeting and fell asleep before the news came on so he couldn’t catch the highlights or even the score. He remembered that he could catch the rundown on AM frequency 930 (Sports News Radio). Many people enjoy listening to AM radio because of how convenient it is to listen and catch up on the sports, weather or just enjoy the entertainment of listen to Rush or Dr....   [tags: Physics Radio Papers]

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Electrolysis: Chapter 4 Results of a Gravity Pulled System to Replace a Direct Current Power Supply

- CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 INTRODUCTION This is the most important chapter in this project. Particularly, we will discuss about the result of this project which is regarding the design of gravity pulsed system. Before continue to the result, we have to evaluate the circuit firstly to ensure the power drive fed to the system as we desired (waveform output). As a conclusion, this chapter will explain further about the result and discussion which is consist of circuit operation and the hydrogen production rate compare to the direct current power supply....   [tags: Circuit, Gas Production]

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Nonvolatile Multilevel Resistive Memory Switching in Amorphous LaGdO3 Thin Films

- Currently there is worldwide interest to develop alternative nonvolatile memory technologies as the commonly used MOS transistor based semiconductor memory devices are rapidly approaching the scaling limits. Among all of the emerging concepts, the metal oxide based resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the competitive candidates for future nonvolatile memory applications due to its simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure, high storage density, low power consumption, high operation speed, high endurance, and long retention....   [tags: computer memory devices]

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The Physics Of The Memristor

- Memristor The memristor was a term coined in 1971 by Leon Chua as a missing non-linear passive two-terminal fourth electrical component component alongside the Resistor, Capacitor and Inductor which relating electric charge and magnetic flux linkage. When Leon Chua, now an IEEE Fellow, wrote his seminal paper predicting the memristor he was a newly minted and rapidly rising professor at DC Berkeley. He had been fighting for years against what he considered the arbitrary restriction of electronics circuit theory to linear systems....   [tags: Neuron, Nervous system, Memristor, Axon]

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Action Potential Self Propagates Along The Cell

- Action potential self-propagates along the cell, and creates a domino effect, stimulating other channels to open (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013, p.404). At a resting state, leak channels are the only channels that are open. Nevertheless, depolarisation occurs, meaning that the inside of the cell changes from negative to positive, only happens when other channels like voltage gated channel opens (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013, p.400). Voltage channel is a protein channel that opens when there is a voltage change (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013, p.401)....   [tags: Action potential, Neuron, Membrane potential]

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Analysis of Smart Power Control System

- Power saving has been a big concern and has acquired an even more worrying avatar in recent years. In this paper, energy management technique based on set of sensors is presented that can be adapted according to the behavior of the habitant. The purpose this paper is to design a bidirectional visitor counter along with RF based power saving system. The system consists of a programmable microcontroller along with motion sensors to detect human presence. Here we describe an RF based power system using AVR microcontroller....   [tags: power saving,avr microcontroller, power control]

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Power Semiconductor Devices

- Power Semiconductor Devices Introduction Today there are many power semiconductor devices used in different applications of power conversion. The diode is one of the oldest semiconductors devices and is still wildly used today in power electronics. Diodes are found in virtually all power converts in one form or another. For this reason our discussion will be focused on the application of power diodes. Power Diodes are two terminal electronic devices that permit current flow in predominantly one direction....   [tags: Power Conversion Essays]

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Constructing a Greenhouse Window

- Constructing a Greenhouse Window Building and testing a sensor to determine number of degrees to which a window is open Introduction When making use of a greenhouse to grow plants out of season or on a large scale for commercial reasons, the temperature within the green house must be carefully regulated, in order to ensure that the plants are under the optimum growing conditions. With the windows shut permanently, the temperature may become too high, and the windows need therefore to be opened....   [tags: Papers]

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Renewable Energy Resources: Solar Energy

- Solar energy is a fast growing energy resource among the renewable energy resources in the market and potential for solar power is huge to contribute towards the power demand almost in all the countries. The solar irradiation and temperature are mainly depends on the output power produced from the PV conversion process. Hence the maximum power point of PV array is tracked to maximize the efficiency of Photovoltaic system. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control system in general is taking care of extraction of maximum power from the sun light....   [tags: solar power, fossil fuels]

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Factors Affecting The Action Potential

- The Action Potential The action potential is crucial to the lives of many organisms, and it occurs in just milliseconds. Without action potentials, none of the systems in the body can properly communicate. There are six distinct phases of an action potential, and each phase plays an important role when it comes to moving ions and current across the neuronal membrane. There are five phases of the action potential that are commonly referred to. The phases include rest, depolarization/rising, peak/overshoot, repolarization/falling, hyperpolarization/undershoot, and return to rest (Bear, Connors, and Paradiso, 2015)....   [tags: Action potential, Neuron, Axon, Nervous system]

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How the Resistance of the Wire is Affected by Various Factors

- How the Resistance of the Wire is Affected by Various Factors I am going to investigate what factors affect the resistance of a wire. There are three main factors which affect the resistance of a wire: The material of the wire. (What the wire is made out of) The length of the wire. The thickness of the wire. (The diameter of the wire) The factors which can be changed are the material, temperature, thickness, length, power and the voltage or current. The factors I could measure are the voltage, current and the temperature....   [tags: Papers]

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